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  2. Mind Altering Drugs • A hallucination is a mistaken notion, that is a perception or feeling that has no external cause. • The word psychedelic means something causing an abnormal stimulation of feeling or conciousness

  3. Mind Altering Drugs • Mind altering drugs are also called • Psychedelic drugs • Psychotomimetics • Hallucinogens

  4. Mind Altering Drugs • “Mind Bending” or “Mind Altering” drugs produce a qualitative change in thought, perception or mood and can cause vivid illusions and fantasies (imagination unrestrained by reality). • These drugs can cause remarkable distortions in touch, smell, hearing and vision, thereby causing ilusions. • For example: Walls may seem to move, colour may appear brilliant, users may claim to “see” sound and “hear” colours and jumping from a high building may appear safe.

  5. Mind Altering Drugs • Examples of mind altering drugs include • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) • Mescaline (one of the oldest known hallicunogens) • Psilocybin (from “magic” or peyote mushrooms) • THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) from marijuana (also called grass, pot, etc.)

  6. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) • LSD is a powerful hallucinogen. • Manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus that grows on rye and other grains. • Effects vary with the dose. • Perception is magnified and folded. • Can destroy the sense of judgement. • Can cause strong opposite emotions at the same time (e.g. Relaxation and tension) • Dilation of the pupils • An increase in heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature • Causes sweating, sleeplessness and tremors • It produces bad flashbacks even after the event. • It does not tend to produce physical addiction, but tolerance develops and disappears rapidly. • Pyschological dependence may appear but not as strongly as other drugs. • LSD appears to interact with serotonin receptors on neurons by preventing neurotransmitter from facilitatingi or helping to make, connections between neurons in the brain

  7. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

  8. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

  9. Mescaline • The peyote cactus found in Central and South America has been a source of hallucinogens for centuries. • Like LSD it producec visual colour hallucinations (vivid colour perceptions) although its ptency is considerably less than that of LSD. • A mescaline “trip” usually lasts about 12 hours. • Often leads to a decrease in appetite. • Like many other drugs, mescaline produces musch worse effects when used with alcohol. • Liver damage is possible with long term use.

  10. Mescaline

  11. Psilocybin • Psilocybin is the major hallucinogenic drug found in “magic mushrooms”. • It is a mild hallucinogen. • Effects of psilocybin are similar to LSD where perception is magnified although the drug is less potent. • In low doses it produces feelings of relaxation similar to those of cannabis. • At high doses the effect is closer to that of LSD. • Users experience an intensification of colour, hallucinations and a sense of well-being. • A magic mushroom trip tends to last about 4 hours. • Psilocybin seems not to be addictive in nature although users tend to develop some tolerance to it. • Psilocybin and mescaline are psycho-active like LSD because they closely resemble the neurotransmitter serotonin and bind with the same receptors in the brain and “over stimulate” them.

  12. Psilocybin

  13. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) • Cannabis (marijuana is extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa. • Hashish is made from the resin of the flowering tops od Cannabis sativa and is a very psychoactive product of the plant. • The main psychoactive ingredient in canabis is THC. • THC is a mild hallucinogen and has some effects similar to alcohol. • At low doses users feel excited and silly. • As the dose is increased, it producec changes in perception – the user sees bright colours and has a keener sense of hearing. • Higher doses produce visual halucinations (objects in odd shapes). • The initial feeling of joy can turn to extreme anxiety, depression, uneasiness, panic attack and fearfulness. • Decisions become harder to make and the user is more likely to follow the suggestions of others. • The users cannot think clearly and their reflexes are not so good. • No tolerance develops, but regular use can lead to moderate psychological dependence. • The smoking of marijuana produces smoke that has composition similar to cigarete smoke, and therefore produces similar risks to smoking cigarettes, including cancer.

  14. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

  15. Structures of Mind Altering Drugs • Indole is an example of a heterocyclic amine compound in which the nitrogen atom is a part of a ring. Indole is a fused-ring heterocyclic structure containing a benzene ring and a heterocyclic ring sharing a common C=C bond. The N atom bonded to two carbons and an H atom is a secondary amine. .

  16. Structure of LSD • LSD, a fat soluble compound, easily diffuses into brain. It readily crosses the placental barrier into a fetus. LSD contains the diethylamide side chain.

  17. Structure of LSD The four possible isomers of LSD. Only LSD is psychoactive.

  18. Structure of Mescaline • Mescaline contains the benzene ring, but does not contain the fused-ring heterocyclic structure. Instead it contains a primary amine group – NH2 where the N atom is bonded to only one C atom.

  19. Structure of Psilocybin • Besides the indole ring found in LSD, psilocybin also contains the diethylamine – N(CH3)2 side chain, as well as the dihydrogen phosphate group on the benzene ring.

  20. Structure of Serotonin • The backbone structure of psilocybin is the same as that of serotonin (a neurotransmitter) but with different side chains. The difference in the properties of the various hallucinogens is due to presence of different functional groups attached to the indole skeleton. This in turn affects their solubility in fats. The greater their solubility in fats, the more readily they penetrate the fatty cell membranes of nerve cells and the greater their potency. This effect is enhanced by the presence of non-polar groups like mthyl groups (-CH3) and reduced by the presence of polar groups like phosphoric acid group (-OPO(OH)2).

  21. Legislation • The cannabis plant, cannabis sativa, contains pharma­cologically active compounds, the cannabinoids. Arguments for the legalisation of cannabis include its ability to offer relief from certain diseases and ailments such as AIDS, cancer and glaucoma. The 'wasting syndrome' seen in AIDS patients due to loss of appetite leads to drastic weight loss. The causes of this wasting are not completely known. It is claimed that marijuana use produces beneficial effects from its ability to increase appetite. Treatment using chemotherapy often causes nausea and thus reduces the patient's ability to keep food down. It has been suggested that cannabis relieves nausea, allowing cancer patients to gain weight. In some countries, it is medically given to terminally ill cancer patients to relieve tension and anxiety. Similarly marijuana is reported to help glaucoma patients by decreasing pressure inside the eyeball which can damage eyes. Another argument given is that legalisation would allow better control of quality and fewer problems with regard to harmful impurities. Also it would move it away from the environments where 'hard' drugs are readily available.

  22. Legislation • Regular intake of marijuana can lead to respiratory ailments associated with inhaling smoke. It has been suggested that regular use may suppress the body's immune system, thus increasing susceptibility to disease. Also, decreased fertility has been observed in some human males. There is some evidence that marijuana use causes brain damage in rats (to a lesser extent than is caused by alcohol) and some research has reported chromosomal damage which may lead to birth defects. It has also been suggested that cannabis users could possibly move on to 'hard' drugs. This may be true of illegal drug users, but whether medicinal users of cannabis would do the same is considered questionable.

  23. Legislation • A significant danger in the use of prohibited drugs is that users have to obtain their supplies from criminal sources. Addicts pay much more than the true cost of the drug and are often forced into crime and/or prostitution to support their habit. This produces a very negative impact on society at large and is the main reason why a few governments have decided to supply drugs to addicts under controlled conditions. This does not mean that these drugs (mainly in the 'hard' category) have become, in the strictest sense 'legal'. A case that could be discussed in this context is that of the prohibition of alcohol in the USA in the early part of the last century. This was widely disobeyed and produced such a spate of organised crime that it had to be scrapped. • The issue of how to contain the damage done to both individuals and society at large by the abuse of both legal and illegal drugs remains one of the most challenging issues facing us all.