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HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, which is our body’s natural defence against illness. The virus destroys a type of white blood cell in the immune system called a T-helper cell, and makes copies of itself inside these cells. T-helper cells are also referred to as CD4 cells. As HIV destroys more CD4 cells and makes more copies of itself, it gradually breaks down a person’s immune system. This means someone living with HIV, who is not receiving treatment, will find it harder and harder to fight off infections and diseases. If HIV is left untreated, it may take up to 10 or 15 years for the immune system to be so severely damaged it can no longer defend itself at all. However, the speed HIV progresses will vary depending on age, health and background.

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hiv aids

HIV/AIDS

By Msut4care

brief description about hiv aids
Brief/description about HIV/AIDS

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also associated with weight loss.

basic facts about hiv
Basic facts about HIV
  • HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.
  • There is effective antiretroviral treatment available so people with HIV can live a normal, healthy life.
  • The earlier HIV is diagnosed, the sooner treatment can start – leading to better long term health. So regular testing for HIV is important.
  • HIV is found in semen, blood, vaginal and anal fluids, and breast milk.
  • HIV cannot be transmitted through sweat, saliva or urine.
  • Using male condoms or female condoms during sex is the best way to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
  • If you inject drugs, always use a clean needle and syringe, and never share equipment.
  • If you are pregnant and living with HIV, the virus in your blood could pass into your baby’s body, or after giving birth through breastfeeding. Taking HIV treatment virtually eliminates this risk
transmission form one to other person of hiv aids
Transmission form one to other person of hiv/aids

HIV is transmitted by three main routes: sexual contact, significant exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding (known as vertical transmission).There is no risk of acquiring HIV if exposed to feces, nasal secretions, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, or vomit unless these are contaminated with blood.[ It is possible to be co-infected by more than one strain of HIV-a condition known as HIV superinfection.

status stages of aids
Status/stages of aids
  • There are three Stages of Aids
    • Acute infection
    • Latency
    • AIDS
    • Pulmonary
    • Gastrointestinal
    • Neurological
    • Psychiatric
    • Tumors
    • Other infections
acute infection
Acute infection
  • Acute HIV infection, primary HIV infection or acute seroconversionsyndrome is the second stage of HIV infection. It occurs after the incubation stage, before the latency stage and the potential AIDS succeeding the latency stage.
  • During this period (usually days to weeks post-exposure) fifty to ninety percent of infected individuals develop an influenza or mononucleosis-like illness called acute HIV infection (or HIV prodrome),the most common symptoms of which may include fever, lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, rash, myalgia, malaise, mouth and esophageal sores, and may also include, but less commonly, headache, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, ulcers in the mouth or on the genitals, enlarged liver/spleen, weight loss, thrush, night sweats and diarrhea and neurological symptoms.
  • Infected individuals may experience all, some, or none of these symptoms. The duration of symptoms varies, averaging 28 days and usually lasts at least a week
latency
Latency
  • A strong immune defense reduces the number of viral particles in the blood stream, marking the start of secondary or chronic HIV infection. The secondary stage of HIV infection can vary between two weeks and 20 years. During the secondary phase of infection, HIV is active within lymph nodes, which typically become persistently swollen, in response to large amounts of virus that become trapped in the follicular dendritic cells (FDC) network. The surrounding tissues that are rich in CD4+ T cells may also become infected, and viral particles accumulate both in infected cells and as free virus. Individuals who are in this phase are still infectious. During this time, CD4+ CD45RO+ T cells carry most of the proviral load.A small percentage of HIV-1 infected individuals retain high levels of CD4+ T-cells without antiretroviral therapy.
slide8
AIDS
  • The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. Most of these conditions are opportunistic infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages.These infections affect nearly every organ system.
  • People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas.
  • Additionally, people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats (particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss. The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives.
pulmonary gastrointestinal
Pulmonary & Gastrointestinal
  • Pulmonary
    • Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (originally known as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) is relatively rare in healthy, immune competent people, but common among HIV-infected individuals. It is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii.
    • Before the advent of effective diagnosis, treatment and routine prophylaxis in Western countries, it was a common immediate cause of death. In developing countries, it is still one of the first indications of AIDS in untested individuals, although it does not generally occur unless the CD4 count is less than 200 cells per µL of blood
  • Gastrointestinal
    • Esophagitis is an inflammation of the lining of the lower end of the esophagus (gullet or swallowing tube leading to the stomach). In HIV-infected individuals, this is normally due to fungal (candidiasis) or viral (herpes simplex-1 or cytomegalovirus) infections. In rare cases, it could be due to mycobacteria.
neurological and psychiatric tumors other infections
Neurological and psychiatric, Tumors& Other infections
  • Neurological & Psychiatric
    • HIV infection may lead to a variety of neuropsychiatric sequelae, either by infection of the now susceptible nervous system by organisms, or as a direct consequence of the illness itself
  • Tumors
    • People with HIV infections have substantially increased incidence of several cancers. This is primarily due to co-infection with an oncogenic DNA virus, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (also known as human herpesvirus-8 [HHV-8]), and human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Other Infections
    • People with AIDS often develop opportunistic infections that present with non-specific symptoms, especially low-grade fevers and weight loss. 
how can i reduce my risk of getting hiv aids
How can I reduce my risk of getting HIV/aids?
  • Get Tested And Know Your Partner’s HIV Status
  • Have Less Risky Sex.
  • Use Condoms
  • Limit Your Number Of Sexual Partners
  • Get Tested And Treated For Stds
  • Talk To Your Health Care Provider About Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (Prep)
  • Always Use New Syringe For Any Medication
  • Used New Blade For Shaving
  • Stay Away From The Infected Material Of HIV/AIDS
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