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Cell Reproduction. Chapter 8. Table of Contents. Section 1 Chromosomes Section 2 Cell Division Section 3 Meiosis. Section 1: Chromosomes Objectives. Describe the structure of a chromosome.

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Cell Reproduction

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table of contents
Table of Contents

Section 1 Chromosomes

Section 2 Cell Division

Section 3 Meiosis

section 1 chromosomes objectives
Section 1: ChromosomesObjectives
  • Describe the structure of a chromosome.
  • Identify the differences in structure between prokaryotic chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes.
  • Compare the numbers of chromosomes in different species.
  • Explain the differences between sex chromosomes and autosomes.
  • Distinguish between diploid and haploid cells.
  • Recall:
  • DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid.
  • DNA stores genetic information, synthesizes proteins, and controls cellular activities.
  • DNA is a polymer. Its monomer is a nucleotide.
  • DNA is a long thin molecule.
  • It is organized into long structures called chromosomes.
  • DNA is packed and coiled in a complicated but organized manner.
chromosome structure
Chromosome structure
  • Chromosomes are rod-shaped structures made of DNA and protein.
  • In eukaryotes, DNA wraps around proteins called histones to help maintain the compact structure of chromosomes and aid in the tight packaging of DNA.
  • Nonhistone proteins are involved in controlling specific regions of the DNA.
chromosome structure2
Chromosome Structure
  • Between cell divisions, DNA isn’t so tightly coiled into chromosomes.
  • Regions of DNA uncoil in between cell divisions so they can be read.
  • The less tightly coiled DNA-protein complex is called chromatin.
parts of a chromosome1
Parts of a chromosome
  • ..\..\Abir School CD copy\Biology\Teacher's one stop\Powernotes presentations\ch_ppts\Ch08\60116.html
chromosome structure3
Chromosome Structure
  • Chromosomes in prokaryotes are simpler in structure than chromosomes in eukaryotes.
  • DNA of most prokaryotes consists of only one chromosome, which is attached to the inside of the cell membrane.
  • Prokaryotic chromosomes consist of a circular DNA molecule.
chromosome numbers
Chromosome Numbers
  • Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell.
chromosome numbers1
Chromosome Numbers

Chromosome numbers of various organisms

chromosome numbers2
Chromosome Numbers
  • Sex Chromosomes and Autosomes
    • Sex chromosomes are chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism.
    • All of the other chromosomes in an organism are autosomes.
chromosome numbers3
Chromosome Numbers
  • Every cell of an organism produced by sexual reproduction has two copies of each autosome.
  • The organism receives one copy of each autosome from each parent.
  • The two copies of each autosome are called homologous chromosomes or homologues.
  • Homologous chromosomes are the same size and shape and carry genes for the same traits.
sex chromosomes and autosomes
Sex Chromosomes and Autosomes
  • ..\..\Abir School CD copy\Biology\Teacher's one stop\Powernotes presentations\ch_ppts\Ch08\60121.html
  • Karyotypes are used to

examine an individual’s


  • Karyotypes are made

from a sample of person’s


  • WBCs are treated chemically

to stimulate then arrest mitosis in


  • The chromosomes are photographed,

cut out, and arranged by size and shape into pairs.

chromosome numbers4
Chromosome Numbers
  • Diploid and Haploid Cells
    • Cells having two sets of chromosomes are diploid (2n).
    • Haploid cells (1n) have only one set of chromosomes.