Chapter 9: Mechanisms and Characteristics of Sports Trauma. What is trauma? A physical injury or wound sustained in sport and produced by external or internal force. Tissues have relative abilities to resist a particular load. If the tissue is stronger, what will happen?
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A physical injury or wound sustained in sport and produced by external or internal force.
Tissues have relative abilities to resist a particular load. If the tissue is stronger, what will happen?
The greater magnitude of load it can withstand.
List and define the five type of tissue stresses: load. If the tissue is stronger, what will happen?
What is the skin (integument)? give examples
External covering of the body
What does the skin represent? give examples
The body’s largest organ
The skin consist of what two layers? give examples
Epidermis and dermis
List the numerous mechanical forces that can adversely affect the skin’s integrity:
How are skin wounds classified? affect the skin’s integrity:
According to the mechanical force that causes them
List and define the different types of wound classifications:
a. friction blister classifications:
continuous rubbing over the surface of the skin causes a collection of fluid below or within the epidermal layer called a blister
b. abrasion classifications:
common conditions in which the skin is scraped against a rough surface. The epidermis and dermis are worn away, exposing numerous blood capillaries
c. skin bruise classifications:
when a blow compresses or crushes the skin surface and produces bleeding under the skin, the condition is defined as a bruise, or contusion
d. laceration classifications:
a wound in which the flesh has been irregularly torn
e. skin avulsion classifications:
skin that is torn by the same mechanism as a laceration to the extent that the tissue is completely ripped from its source is an avulsion injury
f. incision classifications:
a wound in which the skin has been sharply cut
g. puncture classifications:
penetrations of the skin by a sharp object
What are the three types of muscles within the body? classifications:
Which muscle is of major concern in sports medicine? classifications:
Striated (skeletal) muscle
What are the two categories of acute muscle injuries? classifications:
How does one receive a contusion? classifications:
Sudden traumatic blow to the body
What is the range of intensity of a contusion? classifications:
Deep to superficial
What is typical in cases of severe contusions? classifications:
What is a strain? classifications:
A stretch, tear, or rip in the muscle or adjacent tissue such as the fascia or muscle tendon
How are strains most often produced? classifications:
Abnormal muscular contraction
What is the cause of abnormal muscular contraction? classifications:
It is fault in the reciprocal coordination of the agonist and antagonist muscles take place. The cause of this fault or uncoordination is a mystery. However, possible explanations are that it may be related to:
What is a grade 1 (or 1 classifications:st degree or 1°) strain?
Slight over-stretching to mild tearing (20%) of the muscle fibers. It is accompanied by local pain, which is increased by tension in the muscle, and a minor loss of strength. There is mild swelling, ecchymosis, and local tenderness.
What is a grade 2 (or 2 classifications:nd degree or 2°) strain?
Moderate tearing (20% - 70%) of the muscle fibers. It is similar to a grade 1, but has moderate signs and symptoms (moderate loss of strength, moderate swelling, ecchymosis, and local tenderness).
What is a grade 3 (or 3 classifications:rd degree or 3°) strain?
Has signs and symptoms that are severe (severe swelling, ecchymosis, and local tenderness) with a loss of muscle function and, commonly, a palpable defect in the muscle.
What does a tendon attach? classifications:
Muscle to bone
Because a tendon is usually double the strength of the muscle it serves, where do tears commonly occur?
At the muscle belly, musculotendinous junction, or bony attachment
What is a cramp? muscle it serves, where do tears commonly occur?
A painful involuntary contraction of a skeletal muscle or muscle group.
Cramps have been attributed to what? muscle it serves, where do tears commonly occur?
A lack of water or other electrolytes in relation to muscle fatigue.
What is a spasm? muscle it serves, where do tears commonly occur?
A reflexive reaction caused by trauma of the musculoskeletal system
List and define the two types of spasms or cramps: muscle it serves, where do tears commonly occur?
Muscle cramps or spasms may lead to what? muscle it serves, where do tears commonly occur?
How is exercise over-dosage reflected? training?
What are the four specific indicators of possible overexertion?
List and define the two types of muscle soreness: overexertion?
What is muscle stiffness? soreness?
Muscle stiffness does not produce pain. It occurs when a group of muscles have been worked for a long period of time. The fluids that collect in the muscles during and after exercise are absorbed into the bloodstream at a slow rate. As a result, the muscle becomes swollen, shorter, and thicker and therefore resists stretch.
What is muscle guarding? soreness?
Following injury, the muscle that surrounds the injured area contract, in effect, splint that area, thus minimizing pain by limiting movement. (Quite often this splinting is incorrectly referred to as a muscle spasm)
Slowly, over a long period of time.
Repeated acute injuries
If the acute injury is managed improperly or that allows an athlete to return to activity before healing has completely occurred.
What is myositis/fasciitis? soreness?
Inflammation of the muscle tissue
What is tendonitis? soreness?
Inflammation of tendon-muscle attachments, tendons, or both
What is tenosynovitis? soreness?
Inflammation of the synovial sheath surrounding a tendon
What is atrophy? soreness?
The wasting away of muscle tissue
What may cause atrophy? soreness?
What is a muscle contracture? soreness?
An abnormal shortening of a muscle tissue in which there is a great deal of resistance to passive stretch
What do joints consists of? soreness?
Cartilage and fibrous connective tissue
What is a joint capsule? soreness?
Bones of a diarthrotic (freely movable) joint are held together by a cuff of fibrous tissue
What are ligaments? soreness?
Sheets or bundles of collagen fibers that form a connection between two bones
Attach bone to bone
Ligaments fall into what two categories? soreness?
Connective tissue that provides firm and flexible support
What is a sprain? joints?
Stretching or total tearing of the stabilizing connective tissues (ligaments)
What is a grade 1 (or 1 joints?st degree or 1°) sprain?
Slight over-stretching to mild tearing (20%) of the ligament. It is characterized by some pain, minimum loss of function, mild point tenderness, little or no swelling, and no abnormal motion when tested.
What is a grade 2 (or 2 joints?nd degree or 2°) sprain?
Moderate tearing (20% - 70%) of the ligament. There is pain, moderate loss of function, swelling, and in some cases slight to moderate instability.
What is a grade 3 (or 3 joints?rd degree or 3°) sprain?
It is extremely painful, with major loss of function, severe instability, tenderness, and swelling.
What is a subluxation? joints?
Partial dislocations in which an incomplete separation between two articulating bones occurs.
Total disunion of bone apposition between articulating surfaces
What are several factors that are important in recognizing and evaluating dislocations?
What are the two major categories of chronic joint injuries? and evaluating dislocations?
What is osteochondrosis? and evaluating dislocations?
Degenerative changes in the ossification centers of the epiphysis of bones
What is traumatic arthritis? and evaluating dislocations?
With repeated microtrauma to the articular joint surfaces, the bone and synovium thicken, and pain, muscle spasm, and articular crepitus, or grating on movement occur.
What is a bursa? and evaluating dislocations?
A fluid-filled sac found at places at which friction might occur within body tissues.
What is bursitis? and evaluating dislocations?
Inflammation of bursa at sites of bony prominences between muscle and tendon.
What is capsulitis and synovitis? and evaluating dislocations?
Chronic inflammatory conditions of the joints.
What are the five basic functions of bone? and evaluating dislocations?
What are the three classifications of bone trauma? and evaluating dislocations?
What is periostitis? and evaluating dislocations?
Inflammation of the periosteum (bone covering)
What is an acute bone fracture? and evaluating dislocations?
A partial or complete interruption in a bone’s continuity
What is a stress fracture? and evaluating dislocations?
Rhythmic muscle action performed over a period of time at a sub-threshold level causes the stress-bearing capacity of a bone to be exceeded
What are the typical causes of stress fractures in sports? and evaluating dislocations?