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Chapter 2. Theories of Development. The Nature of Developmental Theories Theory: A set of ideas proposed to describe and explain certain phenomena Provides organization of facts and observations Guides collection of new facts and observations A good developmental theory should be

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chapter 2

Chapter 2

Theories of Development

slide2
The Nature of Developmental Theories
    • Theory: A set of ideas proposed to describe and explain certain phenomena
      • Provides organization of facts and observations
      • Guides collection of new facts and observations
    • A good developmental theory should be
      • Internally consistent
      • Falsifiable: Hypotheses which can be tested
      • Supported by data
slide3
Assumptions About Human Nature
    • Theories & the nature of human development
      • Hobbes (1588-1697)
        • Society must civilize inherently selfish, bad children
      • Rousseau (1712-1778)
        • Society should allow children to follow their naturally good instincts
      • Locke (1632-1704)
        • “Tabula Rasa” or blank slate
        • Children will be good/bad based on experiences
slide4
Other Assumptions About Human Nature
    • Nature/Nurture: Heredity or Environment
    • Active or Passive Development
      • Humans shape their lives
      • Humans are products of forces beyond their control
    • Continuity/Discontinuity: Stages or gradual change
      • Quantitative Changes: Degree of trait or behavior
      • Qualitative Changes: Transformational changes
    • Universal or Context Specific Development
slide5
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Instincts and Unconscious Motivation
    • Id, Ego, and Superego formed from psychic energy (libido)
      • Id represents human’s instinctual nature
      • Ego is rational and objective
      • Superego: Internalized moral standards
    • Regular conflicts between them
slide6
Freud’s Psychosexual Development
    • Child moves through five stages
      • Conflict between Id and Superego
        • Conflict creates anxiety
          • Ego defends w/ defense mechanisms
    • Early experiences impact personality
      • Oral: Optimistic & gullible v. hostile
      • Anal: Fastidious & orderly v. messy
      • Phallic: Flirty & promiscuous v. chaste
slide7
Strengths and Weaknesses of Freud’s Theory
    • Strengths
      • Awareness of unconscious motivation
      • Emphasized importance of early experience, emotions
      • Neo-Freudians have been influential
    • Weaknesses
      • Ambiguous, inconsistent, not testable (falsifiable)
      • Not supported by research
slide8
Erik Erikson
    • Most influential Neo-Freudian, especially for development
    • Some differences with Freud
      • Less emphasis on sexual urges
      • More emphasis on rational ego
      • More positive and adaptive view of human nature
      • Believed development continues through life
      • Emphasized psychosocial conflicts
slide9
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
    • Trust vs. Mistrust: responsive caregiver key
      • Learn to trust caregiver to meet needs
    • Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
      • Learn to assert will and do for themselves
    • Initiative vs. Guilt: Preschool
      • Devising/carrying out plans without hurting others
    • Industry vs. Inferiority: School-Age children
      • Master social academic skills on par with others
slide10
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
    • Identity vs. Role Confusion: Adolescence
      • Establish social and vocational identities
    • Intimacy vs. Isolation: Young Adult
      • Establish intimate relations with others
    • Generativity vs. Stagnation: Middle Age
      • Feel productive and helping next generation
    • Integrity vs. Despair: Older Adult
      • View their life as meaningful to face death w/o regret
slide11
Strengths and Weaknesses of Erikson
    • Strengths
      • Emphasis on rational and adaptive nature
      • Interaction of biological and social influences
      • Focus on identity crisis of adolescence still relevant
    • Weaknesses
      • Sometimes vague and difficult to test
      • Does not explain how development comes about
slide12
Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Piaget
    • Intelligence = Ability to adapt to environment
    • Constructivism: Understanding based on experience
    • Interaction of biology and environment leads to each stage
      • Sensorimotor (age 0-2)
      • Preoperational (age 2-7)
      • Concrete operations (age 7-11)
      • Formal operations (age 12+)
slide13
Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Piaget
    • Sensorimotor (age 0-2)
      • Use senses/motor beh to understand world
      • Begin w/ reflexes but learn symbolic use of language & can plan solutions mentally
    • Preoperational (age 2-7)
      • Language devleopment, pretend play, solve problems mentally
      • Not yet logical, are egocentric, fooled by perception
slide14
Cognitive-Developmental Theory: Piaget
    • Concrete operations (age 7-11)
      • Logical operations, mentally classify/act on concrete symbolized objects
      • Solves practical problems via trial and error
    • Formal operations (age 12+)
      • Think abstractly, hypothetical, trace long-term effects of beh
      • Form hypotheses and test them empirically
slide15
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
    • Strengths
      • Well accepted by developmentalists
      • Well researched, mostly supported
      • Influenced education and parenting
    • Weaknesses
      • Ignores motivation and emotion
      • Stages not universal
slide16
Contextual and Systems Theories
    • Psychobiological, evolutionary theories
      • Historical context
    • Sociocultural Perspective – Vygotsky
      • Cognitive development a social process
      • Problem solving aided by dialogues
    • The Bioecological Approach – Bronfenbrenner
      • Reciprocal influence of person and environment
slide17
Bronfenbrenner’s Systems Approach
    • Microsystem: Immediate environment
    • Mesosystem: Linkages between microsystems
    • Exosystem: Indirectly experienced linkages
    • Macrosystem: Culture of systems
slide19
Bronfenbrenner
    • Strengths
      • Emphasis on context
    • Weaknesses
      • Partially formulated
      • Too many generalizations
    • Should be combined with stage theories