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Cell Reproduction. Mitosis & Meiosis. http://biotech-adventure.okstate.edu/low/basics/mitosis/mitosis-diagram/diagram.gif. Cell Cycle. http://www.bmb.psu.edu/courses/biotc489/notes/cycle.jpg. Mitosis. One type of cell division.

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cell reproduction

Cell Reproduction

Mitosis & Meiosis

cell cycle
Cell Cycle

http://www.bmb.psu.edu/courses/biotc489/notes/cycle.jpg

mitosis
Mitosis
  • One type of cell division

Cell process in which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei identical to each other, and identical to the original nucleus, in a series of steps (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase)

interphase
Interphase
  • Period of growth & development
  • Hereditary information (DNA) copied (replicated / duplicated)
  • Cells that do not divide (nerves) are always in interphase
prophase
Prophase
  • DNA begins to shorten & thicken
    • Now called chromatids / chromosomes
  • Centromeres form
  • Nuclear membrane breaks apart
  • Spindle fibers form
metaphase
Metaphase
  • Chromatids / chromosomes line up
  • Centromere attaches to spindle fibers
anaphase
Anaphase
  • Centromeres divide
  • Spindle fibers shorten
  • Chromatid pairs separate – move to ends of cell
  • Chromatids are now called
    • Each ½ of the pair is now called a chromosome
telophase
Telophase
  • Spindle fibers disappear
  • Chromosomes uncoil
  • Nuclear membrane forms
  • Cell divides (cytokinesis)
mitosis animation
Mitosis Animation

http://www.johnkyrk.com/mitosis.html

results of mitosis
Results of Mitosis
  • Division of nucleus
    • Nuclei are identical to each other
      • Same number & type of chromosomes
asexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

A type of reproduction - fission, budding, and regeneration - in which a new organism is produced from one parent and has DNA identical to the parent organism.

asexual reproduction1
Asexual Reproduction
  • Offspring produced from one organism
  • Hereditary information is identical
  • Mitosis is one form of asexual reproduction
sexual reproduction1

Sexual Reproduction

A type of reproduction in which two sex cells, usually an egg and a sperm, join to form a zygote, which will develop into a new organism with a unique identity.

meiosis
Meiosis
  • The nucleus divides twice
    • Meiosis I
    • Meiosis II
interphase1
Interphase
  • DNA is duplicated
prophase i
Prophase I
  • DNA shorten & thicken
    • Forms chromatids / chromosomes
metaphase i
Metaphase I
  • Copied chromatids / chromosomes line up in middle of cell
  • Centromeres attach to spindle fibers
anaphase i
Anaphase I
  • Chromatid pairs are pulled apart
    • They DO NOT separate
  • Move to ends of cell
telophase i
Telophase I
  • Cell divides
  • No further replication of hereditary material
prophase ii
Prophase II
  • Similar to mitosis
    • Starts with TWO cells instead of one
      • Spindle fibers appear
metaphase ii
Metaphase II
  • Duplicated chromatid / chromosomes line up in middle of cell
  • Spindle fibers attach to centromeres
anaphase ii
Anaphase II
  • Centromere divides
    • Chromatids separate & move to ends of cell
      • Chromatids are now individual chromosomes
telophase ii
Telophase II
  • Spindle fibers disappear
  • Nuclear membranes form at each end of cell
  • Cells divide
    • Results in 4 cells
      • Each with ½ the original number of chromosomes
meiosis animation

Meiosis Animation

http://www.johnkyrk.com/meiosis.html

in summary meiosis
In summary:Meiosis
  • Two cells form during meiosis I
  • In meiosis II, both of these cells form two cells
  • The two divisions of the nucleus result in four sex cells (gametes)
  • Each has one-half the number of chromosomes in its nucleus that was in the original nucleus
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