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Africa, India, And the new British Empire
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  1. Africa, India, And the new British Empire By: Chelsea Nash

  2. Changes and Exchanges in Africa • Before 1870: • European imperialists built powerful new states or expanded old ones • External slave trades decreased. Trade of palm oil, ivory, timber, gold increased from Africa

  3. New States in Southern and Inland West Africa • Conflict with grazing and farming lands caused military genius Shaka to create Zulu kingdom in 1818 • Shaka (rule: 1818-1828) • Raided African neighbors- took cattle, women and children • For protection African neighbors made own states: ex. Swazi and Lesotho kingdom

  4. … New States in Southern and inland west africa cont. • Successful armies of movement conquered Hausa and neighboring areas under a caliph • Sokoto Caliphate (1809-1906): largest state in W. Africa since Songhai • Muslim states were the centers of Islamic learning and reform • Schools that were training boys in Quarnic subjects spread • Sokoto leaders sold captives of jihad to Atlantic and trans-Saharan slave trade • 10,000 slaves per year most were women and children • Slavery increase in Sokoto Caliphate and new states in 1865 more slaves than any slaveholding state in Americas

  5. Modernization and Expansion in Egypt • Napoleon successor to Egypt = Muhammad Ali (1769-1849) • Eliminated rivals (ruled 1805-1848) • Political, social and economic reforms created modern Egypt • Wanted military strength for defense against Europe • Used European experts and techniques • Transformed landholding, increased agricultural production, modern administration and army population doubled, trade with Europe up 600%, new class of educated and provided own textiles, paper, weapons and military uniforms

  6. Trade in Coastal West Africa • Trade between Africa and Atlantic continents doubled 1730-1780’s, doubled again by 1870 • Slave trade ended during 1790’s • humanitarians and religious reformers wanted slavery to end • in 1808 Great Britain and USA made carrying and importing slaves from Africa illegal • Africans expanded “Legitimate” trade to get European goods; most successful export palm oil which was used for soap and candles • Slavery was harsh but offered some male and female slaves wealth and power

  7. The Raj and the Rebellion (1818-1857) • British raj wanted to remake India through administrative and social reform, Economic development ,and introduction of new technology • Raj created more jobs and drove Indians out of handicraft textile industry • 18th century India was the largest exporter of cotton textiles

  8. Political Reform and Industrial Impact (1858-1900) Rebellion of 1857-1858 was a turning point in the history of modern India • British eliminated traces of Mughal and Company rule • Queen’s proclamation was all Indians have equal protection under the law and freedom to practice religious and social customs • Most British officials were rasist to the ruled people • the Govt. invested money into harbors, cities and irrigation canals • Exported: Cotton fiber, opium, tea, silk, sugar • Imported: Manufactured goods from Britain

  9. Political Reform Cont. • Indian govt. promoted new technologies • Steamboats were a massive program of canal building for irrigation • 1840’s railroads then telegraph lines • Indians road trains to work, on pilgrimage and in search of work • Poor Indians moving to cities spread cholera, transmitted through water contaminated by human feces: eventually spread to Europe • Some believed “the black death”was punishment for allowing British to takeover

  10. Rising Indian Nationalism (1828-1900) • Some Indians believed, to overthrow Britain, they must reduce their country’s social and ethnic divisions and promote Indian nationalism • New nationalists from middle class were educated and ambitious they were angered by obstacles British rules put in the way • in 1885 the Indian National Congress created a larger role for Indians in civil service

  11. Imperial Policies and Shipping • British imperial expansion was due to trade not territory • Instead of rebuilding a closed, mercantilist network of trade with colonies Britain wanted to trade freely with all parts of world • Trading goods: ivory, vegetable oil, coffee, cocoa, tea, sugar, indigo dyes, cotton fibers • Sailing Ship • Iron fastening timber together for larger vessels • Merchant ships less than 300 tons in 18th century – after 1850 American built clipper ships were 2,000 tons with huge canvas sails made them faster than earlier vessels

  12. New Labor Migrations • 1834-1870: Indians, Chinese and Africans responded to labor recruiters to work overseas on sugar plantations • When African’s left plantations due to long work hours Britain had to find new laborers • Laborers served under contracts of denture and were paid small salary, provided housing, clothing, and medical care • Most indentured migrants and contemporary emigrants from Europe had much in common

  13. Conclusion • Britain commercial expansion in 19th century • Product of Easterners’ demand for industrial manufactures • Better and cheaper than handicrafts • Industrialization • Power shift to Europeans in 1750-1870: although local cultures and initiatives dominant • Asians and Africans were powerless under European expansion • they Used European education, technology and methods to transform society • Leaders in Egypt, India, Russia, Ottoman Empire, China and Japan learned to challenge West power on own terms • In 1870 Africans and Asians continued to shape own future