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Beyond the early years: An evidence review. John McAteer, 1 Ruth Jepson, 1 Caroline Jackson, 1 Danny Wight, 2 1 Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy 2 MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit. Parenting behaviours. Warmth/support

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beyond the early years an evidence review

Beyond the early years: An evidence review

John McAteer,1 Ruth Jepson,1 Caroline Jackson,1 Danny Wight,2

1Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy

2MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit

parenting behaviours
Parenting behaviours
  • Warmth/support
    • Providing encouragement, communicating positively, showing love, etc
  • Control
    • Establishing rules and consequences, monitoring (e.g. behaviour, whereabouts), etc

In general, parenting involves a degree of both warmth/support and control behaviours

parenting styles
Parenting styles
  • Authoritative
    • High warmth/support & high control
  • Authoritarian
    • Low warmth/support & high control
  • Permissive
    • High warmth/support & low control
  • Neglectful
    • Low warmth/support & low control
slide4

High warmth/support

Authoritative

Permissive

High control

Low control

Authoritarian

Neglectful

Low warmth/support

parenting is associated with adolescent health and wellbeing
Parenting is associated with adolescent health and wellbeing
  • Healthy/positive behaviours
    • Exercise, diet, academic performance, etc
  • Risky behaviours
    • Substance use, smoking,

sexual risk behaviour, etc

this review
This review

1. What parenting styles and parenting behaviours are associated with adolescent health and wellbeing?

2. What programmes have been shown to be effective for reducing risk behaviours in adolescents?

review of reviews
Review of reviews…
  • 11 reviews identified
  • Parenting styles & behaviours and a range of adolescent outcomes including
    • Substance use, healthy eating, delinquency, sexual risk behaviour, & physical activity

Copies of the initial summary report are available from https://www.scphrp.ac.uk/node/290 & from john.mcateer@ed.ac.uk

findings parenting styles 1
Findings: Parenting styles (1)
  • Adolescents with authoritative parents (High warmth/support & high control)
    • Less alcohol, smoking, cannabis, cocaine, & ecstasy use
    • Increased condom and contraceptive use
    • Lower BMI, greater consumption of fruits and vegetables, lower consumption of sugary beverages,
    • Higher levels of academic achievement
findings parenting styles 2
Findings: Parenting styles (2)
  • Adolescents with authoritarian & permissive parents (high control/low warmth; low warmth/low control)
    • In general, less positive health and wellbeing outcomes
    • Greater alcohol, smoking, and other substance use
    • Higher BMI, poorer diet, and lack of physical activity
  • Adolescents with neglectful parents
    • Poor health and wellbeing outcomes
slide10

High warmth/support

Authoritative

Permissive

High control

Low control

Authoritarian

Neglectful

Low warmth/support

slide11

High warmth/support

Authoritative

High control

  • In general, the authoritative parenting style appears to have the most positive impact on adolescent health and wellbeing
findings parenting behaviours 1
Findings: Parenting behaviours (1)
  • Adolescents with parents who monitored their activities/whereabouts
    • Less sexual risk taking
    • Less conduct problems/less delinquent behaviour in girls
    • Less alcohol, smoking, cannabis, cocaine, & ecstasy use
findings parenting behaviours 2
Findings: Parenting behaviours (2)
  • Parent-child communication
    • Less sexual risk taking
    • Reduction in frequency of sexual behaviour in sexually active youth
    • Less alcohol, smoking, cannabis, cocaine, & ecstasy use
slide14

High warmth/support

Authoritative

High control

slide15

High warmth/support

Authoritative

High control

Parent-child communication

Monitoring

  • In general, monitoring and parent-child communication have a positive impact on adolescent health and wellbeing
other findings
Other findings…
  • Parental modelling of healthy behaviours
  • Autonomy granting
  • Parental encouragement
  • Family meals

All associated with positive adolescent health and wellbeing

parenting in context 1
Parenting in context (1)
  • Adolescents’ health and wellbeing is influenced by many different factors, for example…
    • Individual behaviour
    • Environment
    • Peers
    • Parenting
parenting in context 2
Parenting in context (2)
  • Contextual factors are likely to play a role in determining the effectiveness of parenting styles and behaviours
    • Isolation
    • Financial resources
    • Family structure
    • Social support

The needs for all groups should be taken into account and necessary support and resources provided

conclusions next steps
Conclusions & next steps
  • Authoritative parenting (high warmth/support & high control), and monitoring & parent-child communication positively impact upon adolescent health and wellbeing
    • Effectiveness may vary due to contextual factors
  • Final report due in December 2012
    • Including review of reviews of parenting programmes targeting parents of adolescents
thank you
Thank you

john.mcateer@ed.ac.uk

Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research

and Policy

20 West Richmond Street

Edinburgh, EH8 9DX

www.scphrp.ac.uk

Follow us on Twitter: @SCPHRP