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The toughest bit of the 1st trimester of pregnancy is morning sickness and any woman who has gone through or is going through it, knows the first signs usually develop during the month following the first missed menstrual period, when hormone levels increase. It may range from mild, occasional nausea to sever, continuous, debilitating nausea with bouts of vomiting.
Estrogen levels :-
Experts believe it is partly due to an increase in the circulating level of estrogen, a hormone. Estrogen levels may be 100 times higher during pregnancy, compared to levels found in a woman who is not pregnant. However, there is no evidence to show a difference in estrogen levels between pregnant women with nausea and/or vomiting and those without.
Progesterone levels :-
When a woman is pregnant her levels of progesterone, another hormone, also rise. High levels of progesterone relax the uterus (womb) muscles to prevent early childbirth. However, it may also relax the stomach and intestines, resulting in excess stomach acids and GERD (gastro esophageal reflux disease, or acid reflux).
Low blood sugar, caused by the placenta draining energy from the mother's body. However, there are no studies to prove this.
Sense of smell :-
During pregnancy there may be an increase in sensitivity to odors, which may overstimulate normal nausea triggers.
Evolutionary survival adaptation :-
Some experts suggest that morning sickness may be an evolutionary adaptation which protects pregnant mothers and their babies from food poisoning - an evolved trait that protects the fetus against toxins ingested by the mother. If the woman with morning sickness does not feel like eating foods which may be potentially contaminated, such as poultry, eggs or meat, and prefers foods with a low contamination risk, such as rice, bread and crackers, the survival chances for her and her child are improved.