Assessment of Renal and Urinary Tract Function . Renal and Urinary Systems. Function to maintain the body’s state of homeostasis by regulating fluid and electrolytes, removing wastes, and providing hormones involved in red blood cell production, bone metabolism, and control of blood pressure.
3. General Ultrasonography: assess fluid accumulation, masses, congenital malformation, changes in size, shape, or any obstruction, fluid intake should be encouraged before the procedure
4. Bladder Ultrasonography: to measure fluid volume in the bladder, indicated for urinary frequency, inability to void after removal of FC or postoperative, measuring residual volume of urine after voiding
6.Retrograde pyelography: catheter induced through ureters to the kidney pelvis by means of cystoscopy. Provide direct visualization of the kidney.
8.Renal Angiography: provide an image of the renal arteries preparation done same as Cardiac cathetarization
9. Urologic Endoscopic Procedure ( Endourology):
through Cystoscope inserted via urethra or percataneously.
10. Kidney biopsy: