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Peer-to-Peer Computing

Peer-to-Peer Computing. CSC8530 – Dr. Prasad Jon A. Preston April 21, 2004. Agenda. Overview of Peer-to-peer computing Parallel Downloading Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming References Collaborative Software Engineering. Peer-to-Peer Computing. Autonomy from centralized servers

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Peer-to-Peer Computing

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  1. Peer-to-Peer Computing CSC8530 – Dr. Prasad Jon A. Preston April 21, 2004

  2. Agenda • Overview of Peer-to-peer computing • Parallel Downloading • Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming • References • Collaborative Software Engineering

  3. Peer-to-Peer Computing • Autonomy from centralized servers • Dynamic (peers added & removed frequently) • File Sharing (KaZaA – outpaces Web traffic, 3,000 terabytes, 3 million up peers) • Communication (instant messenger) • Computation (seti@home)

  4. Peer-to-Peer Computing (cont) • De-centralized data sharing • Dynamic growth of system capacity • Various data lookup/discovery schemes • Centralized directory servers (Napster) • Controlled request flooding (Gnutella) • Hierarchy with supernodes (KaZaA) • Heterogeneous collection of peers • Need a way of encouraging reporting of true outgoing bandwidth

  5. Worldwide Computer(P2P Computation) • “Moonlight” your computer • Share/lease processor and storage • Process others’ simulations, etc. • Archive other’s files (even when computer off) • Receive micropayments for services rendered • PC is component of worldwide computer • “Internet-scale OS” – centralized structure • Must allocate resources, coordination, security/privacy, etc.

  6. Parallel Downloading • Potential widespread utilization on P2P networks • Past work shows parallel downloading (PD) has higher aggregated downloading throughput • Shorter download times by clients

  7. Communication in PD • Client must determine segments of file for each server request • Alternative: “Tornado Code” • Servers keep sending until client says “enough” • Requires less communication about quantity and which part of the file the client wants • Does require high buffering on client (entire file)

  8. Parallel vs. Sequential Download • Parallel incurs non-trivial cost • Synchronization • Coordination • Encoding/decoding • Adopt PD if download performance improves significantly…

  9. Large-Scale Deployment of PD • Koo et al developed a model in May 2003 that shows SD is better than PD • Assumes that Capacityservers >> Capacityclients • Homogenous network • Analyzed average download time • Performance is similar, but SD requires less overhead

  10. Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming • Peer-to-peer file sharing • Act as server and client • “Open-after-download” • Media Streaming • “Play-while-downloading” • Subset of peers “owns” a media file • These peers stream media to requesting peers • Recipients become supplying peers themselves

  11. Characteristics of P2P Media Streaming Systems • Self-growing – requesting peers become supplying peers (total system capacity grows) • Serverless – each peer is not to act as server (open large number of simultaneous/client connections) • Heterogeneous – peers contribute different outbound connection bandwidths • Many-to-one – many supplying peers to one real-time playing client (hard deadlines)

  12. Two Problems • Media data assignment • Fast amplification

  13. Media Data Assignment • Given • Requesting peer • Multiple supplying peers • Heterogeneous outbound bandwidth on suppliers • Determine • Subset of media to request from each supplier A B C D

  14. Variable Buffer Delays Buffer delay dependsupon the orderingof which segments ofthe media file to obtainfrom each supplyingpeer.

  15. Fast Amplification • Differential selection algorithm • Favor higher-class (higher outbound bandwidth) • Ultimately benefit all requesting peers • Should not starve any lower-class peer • Enforced via pure distributed algorithm • Probability of selection proportional to requesting peer’s promised outbound bandwidth

  16. Variable Capacity Growth

  17. Selection Algorithm • Each supplying peer • Determines which requesting peer to serve • Maintains probability vector – one entry per class of peers (class defined by bandwidth) • Receives “reminders” from peers • If supplier (Ps) is busy, it can receive a reminder from requesting peer (Pr) • This reminder tells the supplier to remember the requesting peer (Pr) and not elevate other peers in classes below Pr when current service complete

  18. Admission Probability Vector • One entry per class-i set of peers • If not busy, Ps grants request of Pr with probability Pr[i], where i = class of Pr • If Ps is a class-k peer, Pr[i] defined as follows • For i < k, Pr[i] = 1.0 (favored class) • For i >= k, Pr[i] = 1/(2i-k) • If idle, elevate non-favored (and non-served) entries by factor of 2 (i.e. Pr[i] = Pr[i] * 2) • Use reminders to effect what happens after service completed (raise or not)

  19. Making a Request • Knows candidate supplying peers {Ps1, Ps2, … Psn} • Pr will be admitted if it obtains permission from enough suppliers such that aggregated outbound bandwidth sufficient to service request • Requesting peer then computes media data assignment • If not admitted, send “reminders” to busy supplying peers that favor Pr. Backoff exponentially. • When request is finished, Pr becomes a supplying peer, increasing the overall system capacity.

  20. Differential Acceptance Results

  21. Non-differential Acceptance Results

  22. References • Simon Koo, Catherine Rosenberg, Dongyan Xu, "Analysis of Parallel Downloading for Large File Distribution", Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Future Trends in Distributed Computing Systems (FTDCS 2003), San Juan, PR, May 2003. • Dongyan Xu, Mohamed Hefeeda, Susanne Hambrusch, Bharat Bhargava, "On Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming", Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS 2002), Wien, Austria, July 2002 • Ripeanu, M. Peer-to-peer architecture case study: Gnutella network. In International Conference on Peer-to-peer Computing (2001). • J. Kangasharju, K.W. Ross, D. Turner, Adaptive Content Management in Structured P2P Communities, 2002, http://cis.poly.edu/~ross/papers/AdaptiveContentManagement.pdf • Androutsellis-Theotokis S. Whitepaper: A Survey of Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Technologies, Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece, 2002.

  23. Collaborative Software Engineering • Overview of Collaborative Computing • Synchronous and Asynchronous • Notification Algorithms • Distributed Mutex • Achieving “undo” and “redo” • Transparencies vs. Awareness • Distributed Software Engineering

  24. Overview of Collaborative Computing • Utilize computing to improve workflow and coordination/communication • Shared displays/applications • Online meetings • Collaborative development (configuration management) • Minimize impact of physical distance • Collaboratories • Emulate scientific labs

  25. Synchronous and Asynchronous • Synchronous • Same time, different place • ICQ, Chat, etc. • Can store session • Asynchronous • Different time, same/different place • Email, newsgroups, web forums • Store session, replay

  26. Notification Algorithms • Unicast • Latency potential issue • Multicast • Significant bandwidth consumption • Network flooding • Frequency • Synchronous implies high frequency of change notifications • Asynchronous implies low frequency of change notifications • Granularity • Differentials or whole state • How to incorporate new users (latecomers)

  27. Distributed Mutex • Token-based • Only the process that holds the token can enter the critical section • Transmission of token algorithm (round-robin, hold & wait for request) • How does a process know where to request token? • Permission-based • Sends request to enter CS to other processes • Other processes get to “vote” • Process enters CS only if it achieves enough votes

  28. Achieving “undo” and “redo” • Particularly important in collaborative systems • High level of “what if” inherent in the system • Others might adversely affect someone else’s work • In OO-based systems, undo and redo are inverses of each other • In text-based systems, insert and delete are inverses of each other • In bitmap-based systems, undo and redo are not so easy • Save entire image (too much space) • Save only differential area (replay sequence of actions to recreate state)

  29. Transparencies vs. Awareness • Does the application know about the collaboration or not? • Transparencies • Communication layer sits on top of the application • Useful for sharing legacy systems • Have no access to source (or cannot modify it) • Negative – no concurrency (one input/output at a time) • Aware Applications • Collaboration integrated into the application • Requires centralized execution with distributed I/O • Or requires a homogeneous architecture (same client on each users’ machine)

  30. Distributed Software Engineering • Synchronous and asynchronous collaboration • Provide meta view of others in system • Allow for viewing of entire current system • Fine-grain source locking/check-out • Provide sandbox for developers to test/build local source • How do we improve concurrency?

  31. Handling Concurrent Development • Split-combine (low level of concurrent development) • Copy-merge (high level of concurrency, problematic to merge)

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