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Water and the Water Molecule. A short lesson on water molecules designed for the Junior High science curriculum. This lesson will…. Define the term molecule . Outline the formation of a water molecule. Introduce the characteristics that make water so unusual.

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water and the water molecule

Water and the Water Molecule

A short lesson on water molecules designed for the Junior High science curriculum.

this lesson will
This lesson will…
  • Define the term molecule.
  • Outline the formation of a water molecule.
  • Introduce the characteristics that make water so unusual.

Image retrieved from: http://www.accs.net/users/kriel/chapter%20seven/water%20polar.gif

before we start let s quickly review the definition of an atom

Electron (-)

Nucleus (+)

Hydrogen Atom

Before we start, let’s quickly review the definition of an atom.

An atom is the smallest possible particle of a chemical element.

the molecule

O

O

O

H

H

H

H

H

H

The Molecule
  • A molecule is a group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
  • Water is a molecule.
  • Ever hear someone call water, H2O?
chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds

Definition:

The energy relationship between two or more atoms that hold them together.

  • Chemical bonds are formed when electrons are shared between atoms or moved from one atom to another.
slide6

O

O

H

H

H

H

We call it H2O because water molecules are formed when electrons are shared between two Hydrogen atoms and one Oxygen atom.
the water molecule

+

2-

105°

O

+

H

H

The Water Molecule
  • The angle formed by the 2 Hydrogen atoms and the 1 Oxygen atom is about 105°.
  • Water molecules have a positive (+) and negative (-) end.
  • This makes it attract to other water molecules.
hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bonds
  • Hydrogen bonds form when the positive (+) end (the H atom) of one water molecule is attracted to the negative (-) end (the O atom) of another water molecule.

Hydrogen Bond

cohesion adhesion
Cohesion & Adhesion
  • Hydrogen bonds influence the properties of water by allowing individual water molecules to stick to each other. This is called cohesion. Cohesion gives water it’s surface tension.
      • Ever see an insect walk on water?
  • Adhesion allows water to stick to solid materials and make them wet.
water
Water
  • The most abundant molecule of earth.
  • About 70-75% of the earth’s surface is liquid and solid water.
  • Water molecules are also found in our atmosphere in the form of vapor.
  • The only pure substance found naturally in all three states of matter – liquid, solid, gas.
about the author
About the Author

Mark Riley is a second year graduate student in the Curriculum & Instruction program at Ohio University.

Please contact him by email at mr389997@ohio.edu

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references
References

Garrison, T. (2006). Essentials of Oceanography (4th ed.)(p. 108). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_(molecule)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molecule