Part I Reading Comprehension and Language Activities Part II Extended Activities Unit 9 Chinese Food
Part I Reading Comprehension and Language Activities • Pre-reading Tasks • Notes • Translation • Comprehension work • Language work(A, B, C)
Part I Reading Comprehension and Language Activities • Pre-reading Tasks • Discussion • 1. Do you prefer Chinese food or Western food? What is your favourite dish? • 2. Do you think cuisine reflects the cultural characteristics of a people?
Chinese Food Turn to p. 161 "Few things in life are as positive as food, or are taken as intimately and completely by the individual. One can listen to music, but the sound may enter in one ear and go out through the other; one may listen to a lecture or conversation, and day-dream about many other things; one may attend to matters of business, and one's heart or interest may be altogether elsewhere... In the matter of food and eating however one can hardly remain completely indifferent to what one is doing for long. How can one remain entirely indifferent to something which is going to enter one's body and become part of oneself? How can one remain indifferent to something which will determine one's physical strength and ultimately one's spiritual and moral fibre and well-being?” - Kenneth Lo
Chinese Food This is an easy question for a Chinese to ask, but a Westerner might find it difficult to answer. Many people in the West are gourmets and others are gluttons, but scattered among them also is a large number of people who are apparently pretty indifferent to what goes into their stomachs, and do not regard food as having any ultimate moral effect on them. How, they might ask, could eating a hamburger or drinking Coca Cola contribute anything to making you a saint or a sinner? For them, food is quite simply a fuel. Kenneth Lo, however, expresses a point of view that is profoundly different and typically Chinese, deriving from thousands of years of tradition. The London restaurateur Fu Tong, for example, quotes no less an authority than Confucius (the ancient Sage known in Chinese as K'ung-Fu-Tzu) with regard to the primal importance of food. Food, said the sage, is the first happiness. Fu Tong adds: "Food to my countrymen is one of the ecstasies of life, to be thought about in advance; to be smothered with loving care throughout its preparation; and to have time lavished on it in the final pleasure of eating."
Chinese Food Lo observes that when Westerners go to a restaurant they ask for a good table, which means a good position from which to see and be seen. They are usually there to be entertained socially -- and also, incidentally, to eat. When the Chinese go to a restaurant, however, they ask for a small room with plain walls where they cannot be seen except by the members of their own party, where jackets can come off and they can proceed with the serious business which brought them there. The Chinese intentions "are both honourable and whole-hearted: to eat with a capital E." Despite such a marked difference in attitudes towards what one consumes, there is no doubt that people in the West have come to regard the cuisine of China as something special. In fact, one can assert with some justice that Chinese food is, nowadays, the only truly international food. It is ubiquitous. Restaurants bedecked with dragons and delicate landscapes -- serving Such exotic as Dim Sin Gai (sweet and sour chicken), and Shao Shing soup, Chiao-Tzu and Kuo-Tioh (northern style), and Ging Ai Kwar (steamed aubergines) -- have sprung up everywhere from Hong Kong to Honolulu to Hoboken to Huddersfield.
Chinese Food How did this come about? Certainly, a kind of Chinese food was exported to North America when many thousands of Chinese went there in the 19th century to work on such things as the U.S. railways. They settled on or near the west coast, where the famous or infamous "chop suey joints" grew up, with their rather inferior brand of Chinese cooking. The standard of the restaurants improved steadily in the United States, but Lo considers that the crucial factor in spreading this kind of food throughout the Western world was population pressure in the British colony of Hong Kong, especially after 1950, which sent families out all over the world to seek their fortunes in the opening of restaurants. He adds, however, that this could not have happened if the world had not been interested in what the Hong Kong Chinese had to cook and sell. He detects an increased interest in sensuality in the Western world: "Colour, texture, movement, food, drink, and rock music---- all these have become much more part and parcel of the average person's life than they have ever been. It is this increased sensuality and the desire for greater freedom from age-bound habits in the West, combined with the inherent sensual concept of Chinese food, always quick to satisfy the taste buds, that is at the root of the sudden and phenomenal spread of Chinese food throughout the length and breadth of the Western World."
Chinese Food There is no doubt that the traditional high-quality Chinese meal is a serious matter, fastidiously prepared and fastidiously enjoyed. Indeed, the bringing together and initial cutting up and organising of the materials is about 90% of the actual preparation, the cooking itself being only about 10%. This 10% is not, however a simple matter. There are many possibilities to choose from; Kenneth Lo, for example, lists forty methods available for the heating of food, from chu or the art of boiling to such others as ts 'ang, a kind of stir-frying and braising, t'a, deep-frying in batter, and wei, burying food in hot solids such as charcoal, heated stones, sand, salt and lime. The preparation is detailed, and the enjoyment must therefore match it. Thus a proper Chinese meal can last for hours and proceed almost like a religious ceremony. It is a shared experience for the participants, not a lonely chore, with its procession of planned and carefully contrived dishes, some elements designed to blend, others to contrast. Meat and fish, solids and soups, sweet and sour sauces, crisp and smooth textures, fresh and dried vegetables -- all these and more challenge the palate with their appropriate charms.
Chinese Food In a Chinese meal that has not been altered to conform to Western ideas of eating, everything is presented as a kind of buffet, the guest eating a little of this. a little of that. Individual portions as such are not provided. A properly planned dinner will include at least one fowl, one fish and one meat dish, and their presentation with appropriate vegetables is not just a matter of taste but also a question of harmonious colours. The eye must be pleased as well as the palate; if not, then a certain essentially Chinese element is missing, an element that links this cuisine with that most typical and yet elusive concept Tao. Emily Hahn, an American who has lived and worked in China, 'has a great appreciation both of Chinese cooking and the "way" that leads to morality and harmony. She insists that "there is moral excellence in good cooking", and adds that to the Chinese, traditionally, all life. all action and all knowledge are one. They may be chopped up and given parts with labels, such as "Cooking". "Health", "Character" and the like. but none is in reality separate from the other. The smooth harmonies and piquant contrasts in Chinese food are more than just the products of recipes and personal enterprise. They are an expression of basic assumptions about life itself.
Keenth Le is a Chinese British, well-known gourmet and successful restaurant owner. He is the author of a number of books on food. attend to matters of business: take care of business matters. and ultimately one's spiritual and moral fiber and well-being: Food can determine whether a person is spiritually and morally strong and sound.
quotes no less an authority than Confucius … : cites as important an authority as Confucius. No less than: as much as. e.g. I paid no less than $ 25for the book. with regard to the primal importance of food: in relation to the supreme importance of food. to be smothered ... through its preparation: Great love and care are to be given to the preparation of food. to smother... with ...: to give an excessive amount of something (such as love / attention / care etc) to ... to have time lavished on it ... pleasure of eating: to spend plenty of time enjoying the food
plain walls: walls unadorned with paintings, picture, etc proceed with the serious business: go on with the serious business of eating. to eat with a capital E: to perform the ceremonious act of eating, i.e., to eat really seriously. Hoboken: a city in the eastern part of the USA. Huddersfield: a town near Leeds. Bradford and Manchester in the UK.
Certainly, a kind of Chinese food... as the US railways: Many Chinese emigrated to America (especially to the western part of the USA) in the 19th century to work on railway construction jobs and they brought with them some kind of Chinese food. chop suey joints: small restaurants serving a Chinese-style dish of meat stewed and fried with bean sprouts, bamboo shoots, onions, and served with rice. Joint: an informal term for a cheap restaurant or night club (usually in poor condition). …all these have become much more part and parcel of the average person s life: Sensual pleasures (color, texture, movement, food, drink, rock music) have become an important pan, of people’s lives in the West. e.g. He can not buy it because of his lack of money. 他因缺钱买不起这个。
quick to satisfy the taste buds: (Chinese cooks are always) ready to satisfy people’s desire for tasty food. taste buds: small points on the surface of one’s tongue, sensitive to the flavor of food or drink phenomenal spread: incredibly widespread, spread to a very large area. The length and breadth of : in or through every part of
It is a shared experience …others to contrast: eating a Chinese meal in a restaurant is a communal experience of sharing many different kinds of dishes, painstakingly designed to create special effects. …all these and more challenge the palate: the rich variety of Chinese food will never fail to attract people
In a Chinese meal that has …as a kind of buffet: The Chinese have not changed their way of eating to follow the Western practice. In a Chinese meal, food is presented as a kind of buffet, with each person helping himself to the individual dishes. The eye must be pleased as well as the palate: Chinese food is pleasant to see as well as to taste. … there is moral excellence in good cooking: there is a spiritual dimension to Chinese cooking in that when eating one participates in the ultimate unity and interconnectedness of all life (food, animals, plants, fruits, human beings, water, etc.) that is, participates in Tao– the ultimate oneness and harmony of the universe.
中国饮食 生活中很少有什么东西像食物这样真切实在，或者说那么彻底地为个人接纳吸收。一个人可能在听音乐，但是音乐可以从一只耳朵进去再从另一只耳朵出来；一个人可以在听讲座或别人的谈话时胡思乱想些其它事物；一个人可以在料理生意上的事务而他的心思和兴趣另有所属……。而在吃饭就餐时，一个人几乎不可能长时间地对自己正在做的事情完全无动于衷。一个人怎么能对即将进入身体并成为身体一部分的东西保持绝对的无动于衷呢？一个人怎么能对即将决定自己体力以及最终决定自己的精神和道德品质及幸福安康的东西一直无动于衷呢？ ——肯尼斯·卢 这是一个中国人要问的简单问题，但是西方人可能感到难以回答。在西方，许多人是美食家，而一些则是贪吃者。但是在他们中间还有为数不少的人似乎对进入他们胃里的东西并不在意，也不认为食物会最终对他们的品性生产影响。他们可能会问，吃个汉堡堡或喝点可口可乐，对你成为一个圣人还是一个罪人会有什么影响呢？对他们来说，食物纯粹就是一种燃料。 然而，肯尼斯·卢却表达了一种截然不同的、典型的中国化的观点。这一观点源自中华几千年的传统文化。例如说到食物的重要性，伦敦餐馆经理付东引用了一位如同孔子（中国人称这位古代圣人为孔夫子）一样权威人士的话。这位圣人说：“食物是第一需要（民以食为天）”。付东又补充说：“食物对国人来说是生活中的一大乐事，需要事先考虑，需要精心焖煮，还要肯花时间享受最后的美味佳肴。”
中国饮食 卢发现西方人走进餐馆，通常要点一张好桌子，也就是一个可以看到别人，别人也可看到你的好位子。他们去那里的目的通常只是为了社交娱乐——顺便吃点东西。而中国人则不同。走进餐馆后，他们要一个有普通墙壁相隔的小房间，在这里，除了自己，别人是看不到的。他们可以脱掉上衣，开始这一严肃认真的事情——吃饭，这才是他们来这儿的目的。中国人的意图既是高尚的，又是全心全意的，即“吃要认真、正式。” 尽管在对待饮食的态度上存在如此明显的差别，但是毫无疑问，西方人已经开始承认中国烹饪的与众不同。事实上，可以公正地断言，中国饮食是当今唯一真正国际化的饮食。它无处不在。装饰着龙及精美风景画的餐馆——经营各种异国风味的美食如糖醋鸡、绍兴汤、烧酒和锅贴（北方风味），还有清蒸茄子——已经在各地如雨后春笋般涌现出来，从香港到火奴鲁鲁，从霍博肯又到哈德斯菲尔德。 这是怎么回事呢？确实，在19世纪，当成千上万的中国人到北美做些为美国修建铁路之类的事时，一种中国食物便进入到了北美。他们定居于西部海岸或靠近西部海岸的地方。在那里各种知名的或者不知名的---“炒杂烩馆”发展起来，经营的都是些档次比较低的中国菜肴。在美国，这些餐馆的标准在稳步提高，可卢却认为促使这种食物在西方世界推广开来的关键的因素是（前）英殖民地香港的人口压力，特别是1950年以后，许多家庭因此移民到世界各地，靠开餐馆赚钱致富。他还说 ，假如社会对香港的华人出于无奈而烹饪和销售的那些东西不感兴趣的话，也不会发生这样的事情。
中国饮食 他发现在西方人们越来越重视感官享受：色泽、质地、运动、食物、饮料，还有摇滚乐——所有这些已经成为人们生活中的重要组成部分这是前所未有的。正是西方这种与日俱增的感官享乐主义以及摆脱根深蒂固的生活习惯束缚的愿望，再加上中国饮食所固有的感知理念，很容易满足人的味觉，才可使得中国饮食能够快速遍布西方世界各个角落。 勿庸置疑，传统的高品质中餐是一件严肃认真的事，制作考究，品味上乘。事实上，原材料的初加工、拼摆及搭配约占实际准备过程的90%，烹调本身只占10%。然而这10%却并非易事。有各种方式可供选择，肯尼斯·卢列出了食物烹饪的40种方法，从煮或者说煮沸的艺术到其他方法如酱，一种炒加炖的烹调方法；塌，将食物沾上面糊后在油里炸；还有煨，就是把食物埋在滚烫的木炭、或烧热的石块、沙子、盐和石灰里面煨熟。 既然准备过程是复杂的，那么美餐的享用自然也应当与之相配。因此一顿传统的中餐会持续几个小时，其进行过程就像一次宗教仪式。它需要参与者共同分享，而非各自的任务，因为有一系列经认真策划、精心设计的菜肴，其中一些成分是用于调味，另一些则用于衬托。肉类、鱼类、炒菜、汤菜、酸汤甜汁、脆生生滑溜溜之物、鲜菜和干菜—所有这些以及其他，他们各具特色都在吊我们的胃口。
中国饮食 在一次未受西方饮食思潮影响上的中餐中，所有食品摆在餐桌，犹如一种自助餐。宾客可吃点这个，吃点那个。单人份饭是不会提供的。搭配合理的一餐应至少包括一道鸡、一道鱼和一道肉，而他们与适当的蔬菜搭配摆出也并非仅是味道问题，也是色泽搭配问题，味觉要满足，视觉也如此（色香味具佳），否则，一种本质上中国特色的东西，也就是使中华美食与那典型在而令人难以捉摸的道家观念相联系的因素就消失了。艾米莉·哈恩，一个曾在中国工作生活过的美国人，对中国烹饪以及体现道德与和谐的“方式”颇为欣赏。她坚持认为好的烹饪融汇了道德的精髓。她还说，对于中国人来说 ，传统上，行为、生活以及所有的知识都是一个整体。他们可以被切割开来，分成部分，贴上标签，如“烹饪”、“健康”、“性格”等诸如此类的东西，但是实际上，没有一种能与其相分离。中国饮食中的这种水乳交融和令人垂涎的相互映衬并不只是烹调食谱和个人生意的产物。他们是对生活基本学说的一中诠释。
Comprehension work（P 164) (Discuss the following questions.) 1. What is Kenneth Lo’s view of food and eating? 2. How does Lo's view contrast with the approach common among the Westerners? 3. What authority is cited to support Lo's view?
Comprehension work (Discuss the following questions) 4. What difference is there between typical Westerners and Chinese in their behaviour in a restaurant? 5. How has Chinese food fared in the world at large? How has this come about? 6. What is a "proper Chinese meal" like? And how does it reflect the basic cultural characteristics of the Chinese?
Language work(A, p. 165) 1. The manager of the indebted company was elusive. He could not be reached by phone. So finally, we had to ask the police for help. ( hard to find/catch) 2. On National Day the city’s main streets are bedecked with flags and colourful balloons. ( decorated ) 3. To cater to public curiosity, the media often lavish their attention on the private lives of some movie stars. (spend too much) 4. The audience cheered in ecstasy when their football team scored a decisive goal in the last minute of the match. (great joy)
Language work(A, p.165) 5. We have to consider the inherent risk of investing in that country because of its political situation. (innate/in-built) 6. Hardly can you be free from the assault of those ubiquitous garish advertisements that aim to lure you into buying this or that. (be present everywhere ) 7. The young man’s father, whose foresight had saved the country from plunging into war, was regarded as a sage in the kingdom. ( an old and wise man) 8. If human beings are to survive, they must live in harmony with Nature.( a state of peaceful agreement )
Language work(B, p.166) 1. Beautiful packages can create a dream, and that is the at the root of their appeal. 2. The pop singer’s fame has dramatically dropped, but he does not know how this has come about. 3. In English there are many loaned words that are derived from Latin and Greek. 4. With regard to food supply, our logistics division will attend to everything. 5. Every hotel must install a fire warning system which conforms to the requirements of the local government.
Language work(B, p.166) 6. As soon as war was over, the administration began to attend to the reconstruction of the local economy. 7. The closing down of unprofitable overseas branches is part and parcel of the company’s plan to save money. 8. After answering a question from someone in the audience, the lecturer proceeded with his speech. 9. Children would fail to make progress, if their teachers and parents remain indifferent to their success. 10. The peaceful settlement of the ethnic clash in the region was welcomed through out the lengthen and breadth of the continent.
Language work(C, p.166) 1. a. He looked as if he was attending to his work, but actually he was thinking about the football match he saw the night before. b. She was apparently attending closely to her school work, yet her thoughts were altogether elsewhere. c. You never seem to attend to what I say, so there’s no point in your coming to my classes.
Language work(C, p.167) • a. In the matter of a job interview, your success largely depends on your own confidence. b. In the matter of family planning, people have to understand why it is important to stop population from growing too fast. c. In the matter of life and death, very few of us can remain as calm as he did.
Language work(C, p.167) 3. a. Matha observed philosophically, “life is full of problems.” b. In his speech, the President observed that the economy would improve in the following year. c. The manager observed that the company would need restructuring to enhance its market performance.
Language work(C, p.167) 4. a. Being recognized in the street is part and parcel of being famous. b. These things happen to be part and parcel of my everyday reality. c. Keeping accounts is part and parcel of my job.
Language work(C, p.167) 5. a. I have nothing to say with regard to your complaints. b. I am writing to you with regard to your letter on March 15th. c. He wants to speak to you with regard to your personal financial situation.
Language work(C, p.167) 6. a. Sam has no appreciation of the finer things in life. b. She has little or no appreciation of good music. c. Charlie has a great appreciation of both classical architecture and Chinese calligraphy.
Dictation Grammar work Translation Part III Extended Activities
Dictation • Script of the Dictation There may come a time when you feel you want to give a dinner-party. It is a pleasant way of offering hospitality to friends or business associates. Operate within your capabilities and allow time to prepare. You don’t have to clean the house first, but be sure it is tidy and welcoming with no heaps of newspapers in the corners or dead flowers in vases. Strangers don’t usually notice details, so ignore them yourself and relax once your guests have arrived. There are several vital ingredients in a successful dinner-party: the food and drinks are important, your house should be warm and delightful and, if possible, bedecked with flowers. And you should be in command of yourself, your family, and for the time being, your guests.
Grammar work • Answers a. 1. to be fooled 2. to let 3. to blame 4. to be invited 5. to be hold 6. to come 7. to win 8. to be found 9. to do 10. to be sold
Grammar work Answers b . 1.They are to have their wedding next month. 2. He is to be congratulated on his brilliant discovery. 3. If it were to rain tomorrow, the match would be postponed. 4. Don’t despair. The best is yet to come. 5. That was in 1550. He was to sail to the New World of America in the following year. 6. You are not to talk in the reading-room. 7. The new traffic regulations are to be observed. 8. The route is to be planned before the expedition.
Translation 1. The landlady told me that the rent must be paid in advance. 2. Although this company boasts that its products are superior to those of other companies, they are actually inferior in quality. 3. What lies at the root of the problem is their lack of interest. 4. The police interviewed several witnesses, but none of them could tell how the accident came about. 5. The new building of the department store does not conform to the safety regulations. 6. She derived great satisfaction from her stamp collection. 7. Colorful balloons and flags added to the festival atmosphere of the small town. 8. Money is very important, but happiness is not always associated with wealth.