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Disability Discrimination Act

Access Planning Duty

SEN Framework

The reasonable adjustments duty


Definition of disability in DDA:

A physical or mental impairment with an adverse effect on the person’s ability to carry out day-to-day activities. Effect must be:

- substantial

- long-term


To fall within the Act, a person must be substantially affected by their disability in one of the following ways:

  • Mobility
  • Manual dexterity
  • Physical co-ordination
  • Ability to lift, carry or otherwise move everyday objects
  • Continence
  • Speech, hearing, eyesight
  • Memory or ability to learn, concentrate or understand
  • Perception of risk or physical danger.
  • For the purposes of definition, ignore the effects of medical or other treatments or aids and appliances.

Substantial means ‘not trivial.’


Definition From December 2005

Some progressive conditions covered from the point where the person knows they have a condition:



Multiple Sclerosis

Mental Impairment

“clinically well recognised criteria is removed.

department work and pensions
Department Work and Pensions
  • Guidance on matters to be taken into account in determining questions relating to the definition of disability
what are reasonable adjustments
What are reasonable adjustments?
  • Reasonable adjustments are the steps schools must take to enable disabled pupils to participate in the life of the school
the reasonable adjustment duty
The reasonable adjustment duty
  • The responsible body for a school:
    • must take reasonable steps to ensure that disabled pupils are not placed at a substantial disadvantage
    • discriminates against a disabled pupil if it fails to take these reasonable steps to the detriment of the pupil and without justification
the responsible body is not required to
The responsible body is not required to:
  • Provide auxiliary aids or services – these are covered by the SEN framework
  • Remove or alter physical features – these are covered by the separate accessibility planning duty under the DDA
what is substantial disadvantage
What is substantial disadvantage?

Need to consider:

  • time and effort
  • inconvenience
  • indignity or discomfort
  • loss of opportunity or
  • diminished progress for a disabled pupil
factors that may be taken into account in deciding what adjustments to make
Factors that may be taken into account in deciding what adjustments to make
  • need to maintain standards
  • financial resources available
  • cost of a particular step
  • practicability
  • extent catered for under SEN framework
  • health and safety
  • interests of other pupils

Admissions, exclusions and ‘education and associated services.’ This includes:

the curriculum

teaching and learning

classroom organisation

breaks and lunchtimes

school policies

school clubs and activities


assessment and exam arrangements


school trips

exclusion procedures

... the whole life of the school

Type of Adjustment

Total 44

Trips 11-----------25%

Discipline 6- -----14%

Curriculum 4 -----9%

Bullying 2

Incontinence 2

Equipment 2

Hours 2

Behaviour 1

Meal Break 1

NA 3

Type of Disability

Ability to Learn…31..70%

Mobility………….3 ---7%

Progressive Illness-2


Eyesight ………….1


NA …………………3

Claims for Disability Discrimination due to lack of reasonable Adjustment to SENDIST upheld in 2004-2005
disability discrimination claims upheld so far some issues
Disability Discrimination claims upheld so far….some issues
  • assumptions about disabled pupils
  • risk assessments
  • administration of medicines
  • school trips
  • behaviour related to disability
  • bullying and isolation from peers
  • access to the curriculum
  • admissions
essential viewing activity
Essential Viewing: Activity

On the pro-forma provided identify:

  • the reasonable adjustments
  • the barriers they are designed to overcome
what is on dvd 1
What is on DVD 1?
  • DVD 1: Essential viewing and other topics
  • Essential Viewing, an introduction to the materials (25)
  • Breaks, Lunchtimes and Clubs (10:30)
  • Educational Visits (16)
  • Behaviour for Learning (26)
  • Meeting Personal Care and Medical Needs (22)
what is on dvd 2
What is on DVD 2?
  • DVD 2: Foundation stage and primary education
  • Foundation Stage in maintained schools (19)
  • Primary School Stories:
  • Primary School Stories Introduction (1:30)
  • Goostrey Community Primary School (8:30)
  • Billesley Primary School (7:30)
  • Batheaston Primary School (8)
  • Primary Education:
  • Primary Education Introduction (4)
  • Curriculum and Planning (22)
  • Teaching and Learning (17:30)
  • Deployment of Staff and Resources (22)
  • Ethos and Whole School Development (23)
what is on dvd 3
What is on DVD 3?
  • DVD 3: Secondary education
  • Secondary school stories:
  • Secondary School Stories Introduction (1)
  • Langdon School (11)
  • North Leamington Community School and Arts College (16)
  • Secondary Education:
  • Secondary Education Introduction (4)
  • Curriculum and Planning (22)
  • Teaching and Learning (21)
  • Deployment of Staff and Resources (22:30)
  • Ethos and Whole School Development (21:30)
reasonable adjustments
Reasonable adjustments

What factors need to be present in a school

to enable reasonable adjustments like those

seen in the DVD to be made?


Reasonable adjustments: Key

  • factors
  • vision and values based on an inclusive ethos
  • a ‘can do’ attitude from all staff
  • a pro-active approach to identifying barriers and finding practical solutions
  • strong collaborative relationships with pupils and parents
  • a meaningful voice for pupils
  • a positive approach to managing behaviour
  • … continued

Key factors … continued

  • strong leadership by senior management and governors
  • effective staff training and development
  • the use of expertise from outside the school
  • building disability into resourcing arrangements
  • a sensitive approach to meeting the impairment specific needs of pupils
  • regular critical review and evaluation
  • the availability of role models and positive images of disability
reasonable adjustments in the classroom checklist
Reasonable adjustments in the classroom-checklist
  • Pre Planning Information
  • What preparations have you made?
  • Are lesson planned to support all learners?
  • Are you using different teaching styles?
  • Are prepared materials accessible?
  • Have you thought about self presentation?
  • How will you use support staff?
  • How have you organised the classroom?
  • How will you group pupils in the lesson?
  • How will you deal with unexpected incidents?
  • How will you ensure all pupils feel equally valued?
  • How will you assess outcomes for all learners?