Geography and the Early settlement of India History Alive Chapter 13
subcontinent • India is a subcontinent of Asia. • India is attached to the continent of Asia, but surrounded on three sides of water.
physical features of India • An aspect of the land, such as mountains, plateaus, and rivers
Brahmaputra River • The river starts high up in the Himalayas. • Winds through snowcapped mountains and narrow canyons. • The water is cold and clear and rushes over sharp rocks.
Summer • Heavy monsoon rains add water to the Brahmaputra River. • A monsoon is a large wind that often brings lots of rain.
Brahmaputra River • The heavy rains cause the river to overflow leaving rich minerals. • The minerals are used to grow crops.
Deccan Plateau • Triangle shaped area between two mountain ranges in southern India. • A plateau is an elevated or raised, area of land that is flatter than a mountain.
Deccan Plateau • Different kinds of land • Large granite rocks formed by volcanoes. • Hillier parts have thin forests and low, scrubby bushes. • The plateau is fairly dry, but the monsoon rains provide most of the water.
Eastern and Western Ghats • Long mountain chains near the coasts of India. • When seen from above they form a large V.
Western Ghats • Higher than the Easter Ghats. • Sleep slopes, narrow valleys, thick hardwood forests, and extremely heavy rains. • Wet climate encourages tropical plants.
Eastern Ghats • Not as wet as the Western Ghats. • Several rivers flow through these green mountains which are sprinkled with hardwood trees. • Rivers rarely flood, but are not safe for travel. • The rivers move very fast and plunge suddenly over cliffs.
Ganges River • Flows across most of northern India. • Rivers carry sediment from the Himalayas to the northern plains. • Sediment is used as a fertilizer. • During the rainy season, the river can flood and destroy crops.
Himalaya Mountains • Located on India’s northern border. • Highest mountain range in the world. • “home of snows” • The water from the range’s glaciers (ice fields) feed northern India’s major rivers. • Earthquakes and landslides are common in the area
Hindu Kush Mountains • Barrier between India and present-day Afghanistan. • The mountain range is one of the highest in the world. • Snow and ice permanently cover the slope.
Khyber Pass • Twenty eight mile long gap between the mountains. • It connects central Asia to the Indian subcontinent. • Traders used the pass to enter the Indus River valley.
Indus River • Began in the Himalaya Mountains. • Gets water from the melting snow of the Hindu Kush Mountains. • Best farmland in the world. • Compared to Egypt’s Nile River.
Thar Desert • Mostly sand and stone. • Rolling sand dunes for hundreds of miles. • Littered with rocks. • Most of the time the heat is unbearable. • There were rivers, but not now. • Rain is rare.
Early Settlements in India • First people settled by the rivers.