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Gilded Age Politics. 1870 - 1900. A Two Party Stalemate. Few economic differences between Democrats and Republicans. Well-Defined Voting Blocs. Democrats . Republicans. Northern Protestants Anti-Immigration Nativists Middle-Class. White Southerners Catholics Recent Immigrants Urban

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well defined voting blocs
Well-Defined Voting Blocs

Democrats

Republicans

Northern

Protestants

Anti-Immigration

Nativists

Middle-Class

  • White Southerners
  • Catholics
  • Recent Immigrants
  • Urban
  • Pro-Labor
  • Farmers
laissez faire federal government 1870 1900
Laissez-faire Federal Government 1870 - 1900
  • Accomplished little domestically
  • Main duties of the Federal Government
    • Delivered Mail
    • Maintained Military
    • Collected Taxes and Tariffs
    • Conducted Foreign Policy
    • Administered Civil War Veteran’s Pension
issues
Issues
  • Monetary Policy
  • Regulation of Big Business
  • Tariff Policy
  • Railroad Regulations
  • Labor Regulations
  • Women’s Suffrage
  • Farm Problems
  • Civil Service Reform
  • American Imperialism
presidency as symbolic office
Presidency as Symbolic Office
  • Party bosses ruled!
  • President
    • should avoid offending factions within their own party.
    • Doled out federal jobs.

“The President should merely obey and enforce the law.”

–Senator John Sherman of Ohio

slide9
How was it that leaders who failed to address the ‘real issues’ of the day presided over the most highly organized and politically active electorate in American history?
slide11
1865- 53,000 people worked for the federal government1890 – 166,000 people worked for the federal government
rutherford b hayes r 1877 1881
Rutherford B. Hayes (R)1877 - 1881
  • “Compromise of 1877” -end of Reconstruction
  • “Party of Morality”
  • Limited Vision of Government’s Role
  • Great RR Strike of 1877
  • 1878 --> Bland-Allison Act
split within the republican party
Split within the Republican Party

Stalwarts

Half-Breeds

Sen. James Blaine (Maine)

Support for Civil Service Reform

  • Sen. Roscoe Conkling (New York)
  • Wanted Grant for 3rd Term
  • Favored Machine Politics/ Spoils System
james a garfield r 1881
James A. Garfield (R) 1881
  • compromise candidate
  • assassinated
chester a arthur r 1881 1884
Chester A. Arthur (R) 1881 - 1884
  • 1882 --> Tariff Commission
  • 1883 --> Pendleton Act (Civil Reform)
grover cleveland d 1885 1888
Grover Cleveland (D)1885 - 1888
  • “Ma, Ma, where’s my Pa? Gone to the White House, ha, ha, ha!”
  • laissez-faire Democrat
  • attacked tariffs
  • 1886 --> Haymarket Riot
  • 1887 --> Interstate Commerce Act

MUGWUMPS

election of 1888
Election of 1888
  • Tariffs major issue of election
benjamin harrison r 1889 1892
Benjamin Harrison (R)1889 - 1892
  • 1889 --> Farmers Alliance
  • curbs on big business (1890):
    • 1. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    • 2. McKinley Tariff Act
    • 3. Sherman Silver Purchase Act
  • 1892 --> Homestead Strike

TARIFFS

grover cleveland d 1893 1896
Grover Cleveland (D)1893 - 1896
  • Panic of 1893
    • [BIG depression!]
  • 1894 --> Pullman Strike
  • 1894 --> Wilson-Gorman Tariff
  • 1895 --> E. C. Knight Co. v. US

POPULISM

william mckinley r 1887 1901
William McKinley (R)1887 - 1901

BIMETTALISM

  • 1898 --> Spanish-American War
  • 1899 --> Gold Standard Act
  • 1899 --> Open Door Policy
  • 1900 --> Boxer Rebellion in China
  • 1901 --> assassinated
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