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What can we learn from the international PISA study about improving reading at age 15?

What can we learn from the international PISA study about improving reading at age 15?

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What can we learn from the international PISA study about improving reading at age 15?

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  1. What can we learn from the international PISA study about improving reading at age 15? February 2011

  2. What is PISA? The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international survey of the educational achievement of 15-year-olds It is organised by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) It started in 2000 and takes place every three years The 2009 survey focused on: Reading skills, with an emphasis on the type of texts encountered both inside and outside of school and in preparation for adult life and the world of work Reading attitudes, behaviours and activities

  3. How was the information gathered? At least 150 schools and 4500 students from each of the 65 countries took part in PISA 2009 The students took a two hour standardised assessment under test conditions The same students were given half an hour to complete an attitudinal questionnaire Standards were applied to ensure equivalence in translation and countries were invited to comment on the difficulty and cultural appropriateness of the questions

  4. Students’ performance in reading – what does PISA tell us?

  5. What PISA reveals about performance England achieved a mean score of 495 (slightly above the OECD mean) 12 countries significantly outperformed England in reading It’s interesting to note that: Australia and New Zealand are English speaking Canada has a substantial number of English speakers Hong Kong and Singapore have strong links with the English education system

  6. How England’s performance has changed since 2006 Compared with 2006, England achieved a slightly lower mean score (495 in 2009 compared with 496 in 2006) was outperformed by 12 countries in 2009 and only 7 in 2006 slightly narrowed the gap between boys and girls and low and high achievers

  7. Aspects of reading assessed by PISA Reading was assessed in relation to: the text format continuous text arranged in paragraphs non-continuous text arranged in a non-linear format and often including tables or diagrams aspects of the reading process accessing and retrieving information integrating and interpreting texts reflecting on and evaluating texts

  8. How England performed in the different aspects 2 aspects were above the OECD average non-continuous texts reflect and evaluate 3 aspects were below the OECD average continuous texts integrate and interpret access and retrieve

  9. Differences between the performance of boys and girls The difference between boys’ and girls’ performance was less than the OECD mean girls outperformed boys by an average of 25 scale points (compared with the OECD mean of 39) girls’ and boys’ performance was closest on integrate and interpret (in line with comparison countries)

  10. Reflect and discuss… How do you think your students might achieve in the different aspects? Would they be stronger at reflecting and evaluating texts than in accessing and retrieving or integrating and interpreting information? Why might English students perform better on non- continuous texts?

  11. Students’ attitudes to reading – what does PISA tell us?

  12. About the students’ backgrounds… Students were asked questions about their parents’ background, education and possessions in their homes On average, students in the PISA sample in England had a higher socio-economic status than the average across OECD countries

  13. Students’ attitudes to reading • 41% of students said they only read when they have to • 39% of students said they do not read for enjoyment • 37% of students said they find it hard to finish books • 27% said that reading is one of their favourite hobbies

  14. What students read Magazines and newspapers were the most commonly read material (60%) 32% of students chose to read fiction several times a month compared with 20% for non-fiction Comic books were much less popular in England than in any other country

  15. What students read online 84% of students in England chatted online at least several times a week compared with the OECD average of 73% 76% of students in England read emails at least several times a week compared with the OECD average of 64% 56% of students in England searched online to find information compared with the OECD average of 51%

  16. Students’ use of libraries 34% of students said that they enjoy visiting a bookshop or library compared with the OECD average of 42% 51% of students said that they never visit a library to borrow books for school work compared with the OECD average of 34% 58% of students said that they never visit a library to borrow books to read for pleasure compared with the OECD average of 48%

  17. Distinctive features of pedagogy Teachers in England were more likely to: ask the students to explain the meaning of a text give students enough time to think about their answers encourage students to express opinions about a text ask difficult questions that challenge students to get a better understanding of a text show students how the information in texts builds on what they already know However, teachers in England were less likely to: recommend books or authors to read encourage students to relate stories to their own lives

  18. What students were reading in school Students were more likely to read: Poetry Tables and graphs Information texts about writers and books Diagrams and maps Advertising material Fiction Students were less likely to read: Instruction manuals Newspaper reports Magazines

  19. Reading activities in the classroom Students were more likely to: • explain the purpose of a text • find information from a graph, diagram or table • explain the way characters behave in a text • explain the cause of events in a text • explain the connection between different parts of a text (e.g. a written part and a map) • describe the way the information in a table or graph is organised Students were less likely to: • learn about the life of a writer • learn about the place of a text in the history of literature • memorise a text by heart e.g. a poem or part of a play

  20. A key message from PISA Both internationally and in England, the time spent on reading connected positively to attainment in reading. However, enjoyment of reading was an even stronger predictor of attainment in reading.

  21. Sharing effective practice The DfE is interested in: understanding better how schools encourage, direct and monitor wider reading. exploring the link between use of technology and extent of reading, especially among more able readers. Are there ways to harness technology for reading? Or should we be pressing pupils to read more conventional printed texts? We’d like to hear what you do that works, including photographs that exemplify your practice. Please email your ideas to: research.summaries@education.gsi.gov.uk

  22. How you can use the evidence in this study • You might wish to use the test items and/or the attitudinal survey as part of your own school or departmental self-evaluation and to inform school improvement planning… • These items, along with the England country report, can be found at: http://www.nfer.ac.uk/research/projects/oecd-programme-for-international-student-assessment-oecd-pisa/