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MEASURING QUALITY. Dr. Larry Hoover Police Research Center Sam Houston State University. The Quality Movement. Global Competition Consumer Expectations Ability to implement statistical process controls Manufacturing efficiency. The 3 C’s of TQM. Culture Customers Counting. Culture.

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measuring quality


Dr. Larry Hoover

Police Research Center

Sam Houston State University

the quality movement
The Quality Movement
  • Global Competition
  • Consumer Expectations
  • Ability to implement statistical process controls
  • Manufacturing efficiency
the 3 c s of tqm
The 3 C’s of TQM
  • Culture
  • Customers
  • Counting
  • Measurement for Improvement
  • Authority Equals Responsibility
  • Reward for Results
  • Teamwork and Cooperation
  • Job Security
  • Fairness
  • Equitable Rewards
  • Ownership of Results
  • Structured Programs to Ascertain Customer Perspective
  • Internal Customer Concept
  • Direct Communication with Suppliers
  • Identify Output
  • Identify Customers
  • Identify Customer Requirements
  • Define Supplier Specifications
  • Identify Steps in Work Process
  • Select Measurements
  • Determine Process Capability
  • Evaluate the Results
limitations on quality culture in policing
Limitations on Quality Culture in Policing
  • Cannot Reward for Results
  • Teamwork is Limited on a Beat
  • Ownership of Results Is Difficult Given 7/24, necessity of patrol availability
limitations on customer focus
Limitations on Customer Focus

Customer satisfaction is limited because:

  • Stress Environment (dentist limitation)
  • Prudent mgt. of Public Resource Demands that We Leave Many Customers Unhappy
limitations on counting measuring quality
Limitations on Counting(Measuring Quality)
  • What is a quality outcome of settling a domestic dispute?
  • Assessing enforcement targeting attention
  • How much time is appropriate for a given incident?
  • Is differential response a code word for less quality?
time the next dimension of quality

Time:The Next Dimension of Quality

American Management Association

cycle times for some of our workshop experiences
Cycle Times For Some of Our Workshop Experiences
  • Rapidity with Which the Travel Agent Answered the Reservation Line
  • Teller Wait at the Bank for Some Cash
  • Ticketing and Baggage Check-in
  • Drink and Peanut Service on the Airplane
  • Check-out Time for the Rental Car
  • Check-in Time at the Hotel Desk
  • Service Time for the Very Important First Cup of Coffee at Breakfast
customer oriented cycle times at a police agency
Customer Oriented Cycle Times At A Police Agency
  • 911 Pick-up
  • Response Time
  • Report Availability
measuring agency quality
Measuring Agency Quality
  • Is the agency administered or managed?
  • Are citizens involved?
  • Are programmatic responses in place where appropriate?
  • Is there an articulated, structured approach to crime prevention, crime response, crime analysis, victim assistance, prosecution, traffic safety, order maintenance, quality of life?
  • Does flexibility in response exist?
measuring individual quality
Measuring Individual Quality
  • Does the officer articulate beat or assignment knowledge?
  • What is the quantity and quality of self-directed activities?
  • What is the quantity and quality of problem oriented initiatives?
micro analysis quality on a beat
Micro Analysis:Quality on a Beat
  • Incident Patterns
  • Incident Trends
  • Problem Addresses
  • Problem People
  • Customer Expectations
  • Prudence of Public Resource Expenditure
micro analysis an individual patrol officer
Micro Analysis:An Individual Patrol Officer
  • Formal Officer Initiated Incidents - both number and quality (citations, arrests, FI’s)
  • Average Time by Call Type
  • Citizen Satisfaction on CFS
  • Problematic Behavior, e.g., high speed pursuits
  • Problem Solving Ability
  • Community Communication
macro analysis the jurisdiction
Macro Analysis: The Jurisdiction

Incident Patterns by:

  • Year
  • Quarter/Month/Week
  • Time of Day/Day of Week
  • Sector / District / Reporting Area
  • Address/Location Code
  • Gang Related
  • Drug Related
  • Offender/Victim Relationship
  • Prior Police Contact
macro analysis the jurisdiction con t
Macro Analysis:The Jurisdiction (con’t)
  • For an individual offense type, e.g., aggravated assault, it is desirable to know patterns and trends by victim/offender relationship, prior contact, and potentially location type

Quarter 1st 2nd 3rd 4th

Spouse 22 14 12 10

Acquaintance 18 22 19 24

Stranger 20 22 25 26

Total 60 58 56 60

macro analysis the jurisdiction con t1
Macro Analysis:The Jurisdiction (con’t)
  • Or for robbery, the time of day and location type will provide qualitatively considerably more information

Time of Day 24:00-06:00 06:00-12:00 12:00-18:00 18:00-24:00

Convenience Store 40 10 12 10

Street/Public Way 20 15 19 32

Schools 0 23 25 18

TOTAL 60 48 56 60

macro analysis the jurisdiction con t2
Macro Analysis:The Jurisdiction (con’t)

Response Times By:

  • Time of Day
  • Day of Week
  • Sector/Beat/Reporting Area
  • Time Received to Time Dispatched
  • Time Dispatched to Time Arrived
  • Call Type
macro analysis the jurisdiction con t3
Macro Analysis:The Jurisdiction (con’t)

Clearance Rates By:

  • Offense Type (not necessarily UCR categories)
  • Offender/Victim Relationship
  • Named/Unnamed Offender
  • Incident Response Mode (differential response)
  • Detective/Unit
  • Sector/Beat/Reporting Area
  • Time Trends
  • Gang Related
  • Drug Related
macro analysis the jurisdiction con t4
Macro Analysis:The Jurisdiction (con’t)

Cycle Times

  • Completion of Incident Report
  • Traffic Citation
  • Traffic Accident Report
  • Pawn Shop Ticket
  • FI Card
  • UCR/NIBRS Report
  • Routine Trend or Pattern Reports
  • Unique Request Trend or Pattern Reports
beyond bean counting measuring what matters

Beyond Bean Counting Measuring What Matters

Some Qualitative Elements Cannot Be Quantified, But Quantification In Detail Can Measure Some Forms Of Quality

community policing institute theme crime specific policing
Community Policing Institute Theme:Crime-Specific Policing
  • Clearly defined intervention strategies
  • Targeted at particular offenses
  • Committed by particular offenders
  • At specific places
  • At specific times.