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FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY POLICY PowerPoint Presentation
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FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY POLICY

FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY POLICY

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FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY POLICY

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  1. FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY POLICY The Profile of Food and Nutrition Security Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  2. HIGHLIGHTS OF THE PROFILE OF FOOD & NUTRITION SECURITY • Nutritional Status • National food balance • Production • Consumption • Stability • Cross-cutting issues Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  3. Nutritional status ØChronic and acute malnutrition •    Micronutrient malnutrition • Mortality trends Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  4. Chronic and acute malnutrition Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  5. Prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED – BMI<18.5) Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  6. Micronutrient Malnutrition - 2001 Only 36% of households consume adequately iodised salt (25 ppm) Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  7. Mortality Trends Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  8. National food balance • 1961- 1995 food deficit in 19 out of 34 years • 1995- 2003 food deficit in 5 out of 8 years • In 2004, there is a high likelihood of food deficit in the southern region Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  9. Domestic Production ØFood production index • Maize production trend • Estate and smallholder agriculture • Agriculture as % of recurrent expenditure • Constraints to agricultural production Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  10. Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  11. Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  12. Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  13. Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  14. Constraints to agriculture production • Small landholdings < 0.5 ha • Low soil fertility • Dependence on rain fed agriculture • Limited access to agriculture inputs • Limited access to credit • Labour shortages on own farm due to ganyu • Declining land and labour productivity due to • Population pressure • HIV/AIDS • High input costs Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  15. Constraints to agriculture production continued • Maize pricing • 1995/96 price band introduced • Price band abolished in 2001/02 • Government still controlling maize price currently at K10/kg Consequences • Maize flows out due to the artificially low at MK10/kg • No incentive for farmers to produce more maize than they need. • No incentive for estates to grow maize • Private traders cannot plan for imports Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  16. Input/output marketing • Output marketing liberalized; maize and tobacco exports controlled. • Imports of raw agricultural products subject to duty-free entry. • Malawi remains a net food importer • Private sector participation in import and export trade in food is liberalized and active • Export and Import bans effected. Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  17. Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  18. Consumption • Declining income levels • Inequalities in consumption • Dietary patterns Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  19. Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  20. Inequalities in consumption • 2/3 of population unable to meet the minimum energy requirements (i.e.,2200 Kilocalorie) • 64% of population below poverty line • 65% of rural population below poverty line • The poorest 20% consume 6% of total national consumption • The richest 10% consume 32% Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  21. type of safety net programes recommended for Malawi • Expanded Public works programmes • Targeted inputs program • Targeted nutrition programs • Direct voucher transfer to disadvantaged groups Are these safety nets effective for enhancing food security Are they useful for development or how about during disasters?? Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  22. Challenges for implementation of safety nets • identification of appropriate type of safety nets • targeting of the safety nets to the vulnerable groups • financial, human and institutional capacity to implement • effective monitoring systems to ensure effective delivery • phasing out strategy Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  23. Dietary patterns • General diet – BULKY with LOW meal frequency • Infant and young child feeding practices (98% breastfeeding, 72% initiated within 1 hour BUT EBF only 63% (2000) up from 3% 1992. • Complementary food – plain porridge mostly cereal based (about 80%), BULKY with low frequency eg. <4 months 0.3 4-5 months 1.4 6-9 months 1.5 Source: MDHS, 2000 Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  24. Stability • Disasters and emergencies • Seasonality of food production • Food and nutrition security information systems Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  25. Occurrence and impact of disasters in Malawi • Floods and drought, most frequent natural disasters in Malawi 1991/92 drought: National maize production fell by nearly 60% to 657,000 MT • In 2001, floods occurred in 13 districts, contributed to about 32% drop in maize output • 2002/2003-food crisis the government spent about US$80 million to import maize • WFP has spent >US$250 million on food aid for Malawi in the past 25 years due to disasters Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  26. Tools for disaster management • Disaster Preparedness and Relief Act, 1991. Provisions of the act include establishment of: • Office of the Commissioner – capacity limited • National Disaster Preparedness and Relief Committee (NDPRC) • A disaster fund – not yet established/ not budgeted for • Disaster management plan – still in draft since 1997 Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  27. Tools for disaster management continued • Strategic grain reserve (SGR) established in 1981 with capacity of 180,000 tones • objectives and uses of the SGR – not well defined • management and financing of the SGR & NFRA problematic • size of the SGR (physical stocks or financial resources) • High cost of maintaining physical stocks Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  28. Current data/information domains relevant to FSN • Agricultural statistics (crop production estimates, livestock census, input output market prices, food supply/demand) • Health and nutrition information (nutrition indicators, health statistics) • Demographic and health statistics • Poverty statistics • Population statistics • Socio-economic information (trade statistics, exchange rates, inflation) • Natural resources information (land, water, meteorology, environmental factors) Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  29. Major challenges on FSNIS • Unavailability of accurate timely and up-to-date data and information • Non-existence of a well structured and coordinated food security and nutrition information system. • Inadequate analytical capacity to provide accurate and timely information • Inadequate access by most users (e.g. private sector and NGOs) Food Security & Nutrition Experts

  30. Cross-cutting issues • Gender imbalances • Environment • HIV/AIDS pandemic • National adult prevalence (15 – 49) = 14.4% • Urban = 23.0% • Rural = 12.4% • Number of infected children (0 – 14) : 70,000 • 60,000 – 80,000 • No. infected adults over 50 years of age : 60,000 • Total HIV+ population :900,000 Food Security & Nutrition Experts