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Reminders: Exam I coming up Mon Feb 24 th ! (a week from Monday). HW3 due on Fri Feb 21. Conduction and Batteries!. Fixed charges. Mobile charges. −. +. −. +. Eventually … . −. Static!. Flow of charges stops!. +. Pixie ↔ electro-chemistry. EMF. Falling water analogy :.

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slide2

Conduction and Batteries!

Fixed charges

Mobile charges

slide6

Eventually …

Static!

Flow of charges stops!

+

slide24

The perfect battery!

Will provide whatever current is needed.

Always maintains a fixed electric potential

across it’s terminals.

slide35

We’ll always assume conventional current flow:

A current of positive charge moving from + to −.

The real current (electrons) going backward is

completely equivalent (for our purposes!)

Units?

slide36

Example 18-1: A current of 1.30 A flows in a wire. How many electrons are flowing past any point in the wire per second?

slide38

Ohm’s Law

Resistance: depends on the object’s size, shape, and composition.

Units?

slide40

Example: 18.7 An electric clothes dryer has a heating element with a resistance of 9.6 . (a) What’s the current in the element when connected to 240 V? (b) How much charge passes through the element in 50 min?

slide41

The water analogy again!

Large ‘resistance’

small ‘resistance’

2 Gal/min

10 Gal/min

slide42

Perfect wires!

A perfect wire has zero resistance (negligible resistance compared to other stuff)

So, no potential drop along wire

That is …. (for example)

slide43

Perfect wires!

A perfect wire has zero resistance (negligible resistance to other stuff)

So, no potential drop along wire

Whatever V is here …

slide44

Perfect wires!

A perfect wire has zero resistance (negligible resistance to other stuff)

So, no potential drop along wire

Whatever V is here …

It’s the same here!

No matter what current is flowing!

slide46

Points at the same electric potential….

Every point of the same color is at the same potential!

slide47

Large ‘resistance’

Small ‘resistance’

slide48

Resistivity of a material

Resistance: depends on the object’s size, shape, and composition.

Resistivity: depends ONLY on the object’s composition.

slide50

Example: Now, how much current will flow in that wire if it’s hooked up to a 1.5 V battery?