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GRID COMPUTING. World’s largest virtual computer. INTRODUCTION. Grid computing  is a term referring to the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach common goal. . INTRODUTION. Definition.

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    1. GRID COMPUTING World’s largest virtual computer

    2. INTRODUCTION • Grid computing is a term referring to the combination of computer resources from multiple administrative domains to reach common goal. 


    4. Definition • A large-scale geographically distributed hardware and software infra-structure composed of heterogenous networked resources owned and shared by multiple administrative organizations which are coordinated to provide transparent,dependable,pervasive and consistent computing support to a wide range of applications. These applications can perform either distributed computing support to wide range of applications. These applications can perform either distributed computing, high throughput computing,on-demand computing,data intensive computing, collaborative computing or multimedia computing.

    5. TYPES OF GRID COMPUTING • Computational Grid • Data Grid

    6. Computational Grid • Why do we need ? • Computational approaches to problem solving have proven their worth in almost every field of human endeavour. • Computers are used for modelling and simulating complex scientific and engineering problems, diagnosing medical conditions, controlling industrial equipment, forecasting the weather…………

    7. Computational Grid • Example of Traffic • Computational Grid Application

    8. Computational Grid • There are variety of reasons for lack of use of computational problem-solving methods,including lack of proper education and tools. • But one important factor is that the average computing environment remains inadequate for sophisticated computational tasks.

    9. Computational Grid • The computational grid environments that provides a demand-driven, reliable, powerful, and yet inexpensive computational power for its customers.

    10. Data Grid • In Increasing number of scientific disciplines large data collections are emerging as important community resources. • For example • The weather forecasting data which already in terrabytes should work with Global Information System at different locations then working with this large volume of data requires data to be distributed and accessed by several users

    11. Data Grid • This kind of large data set usage geographic distribution of users and resources and computationally intensive analysis results in complex stringent performance demands that are not satisfied by an existing data management system. • This led to introduce a Data Grid.

    12. Grid Applications Application partitioning that involves breaking the problem into discrete pieces Discovery and scheduling of tasks and workflow Data Communications distributing the problem data where and when it is required

    13. Grid Applications Provisioning and distributing application codes to specific system nodes Result management assisting in the decision processes of the environment Autonoimc features such as self-configuration,self-optimization, self-recovery and self-management.

    14. Grid Benefits • No need to buy large six figure SMP servers for applications that can be split up and farmed out to smaller commodity type servers. • Results can then be concatenated and analyzed upon job(s) completion. 

    15. Grid Benefits • Jobs can be executed in parallel speeding performance. Grid environments are extremely well suited to run jobs that can be split into smaller chunks and run concurrently on many nodes.

    16. Grid Benefits • Grid environments are much more modular and don't have single points of failure. • If one of the servers/desktops within the grid fail there are plenty of other resources able to pick the load. • Jobs can automatically restart if a failure occurs. 

    17. Grid Benefits • Upgrading can be done on the fly without scheduling downtime. • Since there are so many resources some can be taken offline while leaving enough for work to continue. • This way upgrades can be cascaded as to not effect ongoing projects. 

    18. Grid Benefits • This model scales very well. • Need more compute resources? • Just plug them in by installing grid client on additional desktops or servers. • They can be removed just as easily on the fly. • This modular environment really scales well. 

    19. Grid Benefits • Policies can be managed by the grid software. • The software is really the brains behind the grid. • A client will reside on each server which send information back to the master telling it what type of availability or resources it has to complete incoming jobs. 

    20. Grid Benefits • Much more efficient use of idle resources. • Jobs can be farmed out to idle servers or even idle desktops. • Many of these resources sit idle especially during off business hours. • Policies can be in place that allow jobs to only go to servers that are lightly loaded or have the appropriate amount of memory/cpu characteristics for the particular application. 

    21. Drawbacks of Grid computing • For memory hungry applications that can't take advantage of MPI you may be forced to run on a large SMP. 

    22. Drawbacks of Grid computing • Some applications may need to be tweaked to take full advantage of the new model.  • Licensing across many servers may make it prohibitive for some apps. • Vendors are starting to be more flexible with environment like this. 

    23. Drawbacks of Grid computing • Political challenges associated with sharing resources (especially across different admin domains). • Many groups are reluctant with sharing resources even if it benefits everyone involved. • The benefits for all groups need to be clearly articulated and policies developed that keeps everyone happy. (easier said than done...)

    24. Drawbacks of Grid computing • Grid environments include many smaller servers across various administrative domains. • Good tools for managing change and keeping configurations in sync with each other can be challenging in large environments. • Tools exist to manage such challenges include systemimager, , Opsware, Bladelogic, pdsh, cssh, among others. 

    25. Drawbacks of Grid computing • You may need to have a fast interconnect between compute resources (gigabit ethernet at a minimum). Infiband for MPI intense applications 

    26. Grid Components • Grid Portal • Security • Broker • Scheduler • Data Management • Job and Resource Management • Resources

    27. Grid Portal

    28. Security

    29. Broker

    30. Scheduler

    31. Scheduler

    32. Data Management

    33. Job Management

    34. Grid Architecture

    35. Fabric Layer • The Fabric Layer defines the resources that can be shared. • Example: computational resources,data storage,networks,catalogs and other system resources. • These resources can be physical or logical

    36. Fabric Layer • Example of Logical resources: file systems ,software applications. • These logical resources are implemented by their own internal protocol(eg. NFS for distributed file system) • These resources then comprise their own network of physical resources.

    37. Fabric Layer • There are no specific requirements for a particular physical resources that relates to integrate itself as part of any grid system. • It recommends to have basic capabilities associated with the integration of resources. • Provide an “inquiry” mechanism which allows to discover against its own resource capabilities. • Provide appropriate “resource management” capabilities to control the QoS the grid solution promises.

    38. Connectivity Layer • It manages connections. • It defines the core communication protocols and authentication protocols required for grid-specific networking services transactions. • The communication protocols can work with any of the networking layer protocols that provide the transport, routing and naming capabilities in networking services solutions.

    39. Connectivity Layer • The Authentication protocol builds on top of the networking communication services in order to provide secure authentication and data exchange between users and respective resources.

    40. Resource Layer • The Resource Layer utilizes the communication and security protocols defined by the networking communications layer, to control the • Secure negotiation • Initiation • Monitoring • Metering • Accounting • Payment involving sharing of operations

    41. Resource Layer • Information Protocols: These protocols are used to get information about the structure and the operational state of a single resource • Including Configuration • Usage Policies • Service-Level agreements • State of the resource

    42. Resource Layer • Management Protocols: These provide the following functionalities • Negotiating access to a shared resource is paramount. • Performing operations on resource such as process creation or data access • Acting as the service/resource policy enforcement point for policy validation between a user and resource. • Providing accounting and payment management functions • Monitoring the status of an operation, controlling & termination

    43. Collective Layer • Resource Layer Manages individual resource while the collective layer is responsible for all global resource management and interaction with a collection of resources. • Examples • Discovery Services • Coallocation,Scheduling and Brokering Services • Monitoring and Diagnostic Services

    44. Application Layer • These are user application, which are constructed by utilizing the services defined at each lower layer. • Such an application can directly access the resource or can access the resource through the Collective Service Interface APIs

    45. Grid relation to Distributed Technologies • World wide web • Distributed Computing Systems • Application and storage service providers • Peer-to-peer computing systems

    46. World Wide Web • A number of open and ubiquitous technologies are defined for the WWW that makes the web a suitable candidate for the construction of the virtual organizations. • However web is defined as a browser-server message exchange model, and lacks the more complex interaction models required for a realistic virtual organization

    47. World Wide Web • Examples: • Single-sign-on • Delegation of Authority • Complex Authentication Mechanisms • Once browser to server interaction matures, the web will be suitable for the construction of grid portals to support multiple virtual organizations.

    48. Distributed Computing Systems • Major distributed technologies including CORBA,J2EE and DCOM are well suited for distributed applications. • However these do not provide a suitable platform for sharing of resources among the members of virtual organization.

    49. Distributed Computing Systems • Another major drawback in distributed computing systems involves the lack of interoperability among the protocols. • Some of the distributed technologies have attracted Grid computing research attention towards the construction of grid systems, most notable of which is Java JINI.

    50. Application and storage Service Providers • Application and storage service providers normally outsource their business and scientific applications and services, as well as very high-speed storage solutions, to customers outside their organizations. • Customers negotiate with these highly effective service providers on QoS requirements.