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C H A P T E R

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C H A P T E R

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  1. 1 6 C H A P T E R Stretching and Warm-Up

  2. Chapter Outline Warm-up Flexibility Factors affecting flexibility Frequency, duration, and intensity of stretching When should an athlete stretch? Proprioceptors and stretching Types of stretching

  3. A proper warm-up is specific to the sport or activity, and stretching is an integral part of any warm-up. The warm-up prepares the athlete for practice or competition and decreases the risk of injury by improving the flexibility of a muscle. -Raise internal body temperature first to decrease chance of injury. -General vs. Specific warm-up p.322

  4. Flexibility Why do we need flexibility in sport? Range of Motion Static Flexibility – passive movement; range of possible movement around a joint; no muscle activity- a person/machine/gravity provides the force to stretch the muscle Dynamic Flexibility - active movement; voluntary muscle actions to gain flexibility

  5. Factors Affecting Flexibility Joint structure – Shoulder/Hip vs Wrist vs Knee Age and sex Connective tissue – elasticity vs. plasticity Weight training with limited range of motion Muscle bulk Activity level

  6. Frequency, Duration, and Intensity of Stretching Each practice session should be preceded by 5 to 6 minutes of general warm-up and 8 to 12 minutes of sport-specific stretching. Sessions should conclude with 4 to 5 minutes of stretching. Individual stretches should be held to the point of mild discomfort, but not pain, for 30 seconds.

  7. When Should an Athlete Stretch? Before practice and competition - read p 324 Following practice and competition –read p. 324

  8. Proprioceptors and Stretching Muscle Spindle and Stretch Reflex – sudden rapid stretch tells the muscle to respond with a stretch reflex and contract the muscle which will decrease the amount of stretch; Ballistic stretching causes this so you want to static stretch GTO – reflexive relaxation autogenic inhibition vs reciprocal inhibition Read p. 324

  9. Types of Stretching Active vs. Passive Stretching  Static stretch – Hold for 30 sec; safe and easy to learn; appropriate for all athletes Ballistic stretch – bouncing; avoid; triggers the stretch reflex Dynamic stretch – long walking strides; ER of shoulder for BSB or SB or VB Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretch Types - Hold Relax – Fig 16.3-16.5; Contract Relax – Fig 16.6-16.8; Hold Relax with Agonist contraction – Fig 16.9-16.11

  10. General Stretches p. 331-341 Know how to perform stretches and muscles being stretched for quiz

  11. Starting Position of PNF Hamstring Stretch

  12. Leg and Hand Positions for PNF Hamstring Stretch

  13. Passive Pre-Stretch of Hamstrings During Hold-Relax PNF Hamstring Stretch

  14. Isometric Action During Hold-Relax PNF Hamstring Stretch

  15. Increased ROM During Passive Stretch of Hold-Relax PNF Hamstring Stretch

  16. Passive Stretch of Hamstring During Contract-Relax PNF Stretching

  17. Concentric Action of Hip Extensors During Contract-Relax PNF Stretch

  18. Increased ROM During Passive Stretch at Contract-Relax PNF Stretch

  19. Passive Stretch During Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction PNF Hamstring Stretch

  20. Isometric Action of Hamstring During Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction PNF Hamstring Stretch

  21. Concentric Contraction of Quadriceps During Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction PNF Hamstring Stretch Creating Increased ROM During Passive Stretch

  22. Partner PNF Stretching for the Calves

  23. Partner PNF Stretching for the Chest

  24. Partner PNF Stretching for the Groin

  25. Partner PNF Stretching for the Quadriceps and Hip Flexors

  26. Partner PNF Stretching for the Shoulders

  27. Stretching Techniques: Neck Look Right and Left Rotation of the neck to the right Rotation of the neck to the left

  28. Stretching Techniques: Neck Flexion and Extension Neck flexion Neck extension

  29. Stretching Techniques: Shoulders and Chest Straight Arms Behind Back Stretching the shoulder joints—standing

  30. Stretching Techniques: Shoulders and Chest Seated Lean-Back Stretching the shoulder joints—seated

  31. Stretching Techniques: Posterior of Upper Arm Behind-Neck Stretch (Chicken Wing) Stretching the triceps

  32. Stretching Techniques: Upper Back Cross Arm in Front of Chest Stretching the upper back

  33. Stretching Techniques: Upper Back Arms Straight Up Above Head (Pillar) Stretching the upper back

  34. Stretching Techniques: Lower Back Spinal Twist (Pretzel) Stretching the lower back and sides

  35. Stretching Techniques: Lower Back Semi-Leg Straddle Stretching the lower back from a seated position

  36. Stretching Techniques: Hips Forward Lunge (Fencer) Stretching the hip flexors

  37. Stretching Techniques: Hips Supine Knee Flex Stretching the gluteals and hamstrings

  38. Stretching Techniques: Torso Side Bend With Straight Arms Stretching the sides and upper back

  39. Stretching Techniques: Torso Side Bend With Bent Arm Stretching the sides, triceps, and upper back

  40. Stretching Techniques: Anterior of Thigh and Hip Flexor Side Quadriceps Stretch Stretching the quadriceps

  41. Stretching Techniques: Posterior of Thigh Sitting Toe Touch Stretching the low back, hamstrings, and calves

  42. Stretching Techniques: Posterior of Thigh Semistraddle (Figure Four) Stretching the low back, hamstrings, and calf

  43. Stretching Techniques: Groin Straddle (Spread Eagle) Stretching the hamstrings and hip adductors Stretching the hamstrings, hip adductors, and lower back

  44. Stretching Techniques: Groin Butterfly Stretching the hip adductors

  45. Stretching Techniques: Calf Wall Stretch Stretching the calves

  46. Stretching Techniques: Calf Step Stretch Stretching the calf standing on a step Preparing to stretch the Achilles tendon by slightly bending the knee Stretching the Achilles tendon by lowering the heel