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How to Use This Presentation. To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar.

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    1. How to Use This Presentation • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” • To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. • From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

    2. Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep Brain Food Video Quiz

    3. Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science Table of Contents Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Section 2 Science as a Process

    4. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Objectives • Describetwo cultures that contributed to modern scientific study. • Namethe four main branches of Earth science. • Discusshow Earth scientists help us understand the world around us.

    5. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? The Scientific Study of Earth • Earth science the scientific study of Earth and the universe around it • Scientific study of Earth began thousands of years ago with careful observations. • For many centuries, scientific discoveries were limited to observations of phenomena that could be seen with the unaided eye. • Earth science assumes that the causes of natural events, or phenomena, can be discovered through observation and experimentation.

    6. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Branches of Earth Science • Scientists have used technology and hard work to build an immense body of knowledge about Earth. • Most Earth scientists specialize in one of four major areas of study: the solid Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and the universe beyond Earth.

    7. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Earth Sciences

    8. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Branches of Earth Science, continued Geology • geology the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape Earth • Geology includes many specialized fields of study, such as the study of earthquakes or volcanoes, exploration for natural resources such as coal and oil, and the study of Earth’s history through the study of rocks and fossils.

    9. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Branches of Earth Science, continued Oceanography • oceanographythe scientific study of the ocean, including the properties and movement of ocean water, the characteristics of the ocean floor, and the organisms that live in the ocean • Like geology, oceanography includes specialized fields. Some oceanographers study ocean water. Others study waves, tides, and ocean currents. Still others study the ocean floor or the organisms that live in the oceans.

    10. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Branches of Earth Science, continued Meteorology • meteorology the scientific study of Earth’s atmosphere, especially in relation to weather and climate • Using satellites, radar, and other technologies, meteorologists study the atmospheric conditions that produce weather. They may use this information to prepare weather forecasts. • Some meteorologists study climate, the patterns of weather that occur over long periods of time.

    11. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Branches of Earth Science, continued Astronomy • astronomy the scientific study of the universe • Astronomy is one of the oldest branches of Earth science. • Modern astronomers use Earth-based and space-based telescopes, as well as other instruments, to study the sun, the moon, the planets, and the universe.

    12. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Branches of Earth Science, continued Reading Check How has technology affected astronomy?

    13. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Branches of Earth Science, continued Reading Check How has technology affected astronomy? The development of telescopes, satellites, and space probes has greatly expanded astronomers’ understanding of the universe.

    14. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? Branches of Earth Science, continued Environmental Science • Environmental science is a relatively new field of Earth science that involves the study of the ways in which humans interact with their environment. • Environmental scientists study many issues, such as the use of natural resources, pollution, and the health of plant and animal species on Earth.

    15. Chapter 1 Section 1 What Is Earth Science? The Importance of Earth Science • Natural forces not only shape Earth but also affect life on Earth. By understanding how natural forces shape our environment, Earth scientists can better predict potential disasters and help save lives and property. • The work of Earth scientists helps us understand our place in the universe. • The study of Earth science can help people gain access to Earth’s resources, and Earth scientists also strive to help people use those resources wisely.

    16. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Objectives • Explainhow science is different from other forms of human endeavor. • Identifythe steps that make up scientific methods. • Analyzehow scientific thought changes as new information is collected. • Explainhow science affects society.

    17. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Behavior of Natural Systems • The goal of science is to explain natural phenomena. • Scientists ask questions about natural events and then work to answer those questions through experiments and examination.

    18. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Behavior of Natural Systems, continued • Scientists start with the assumption that nature is understandable. • Scientists also expect that similar forces in a similar situation will cause similar results. • Scientists also expect that nature is predictable, which means that the future behavior of natural forces can be anticipated.

    19. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Methods • Over time, the scientific community has developed organized and logical approaches to scientific research. These approaches are known as scientific methods. • Scientific methods are not a set of sequential steps that scientists always follow. Rather these methods are guidelines to scientific problem solving.

    20. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Methods, continued The diagram below shows a basic flowchart of scientific methods.

    21. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Methods, continued Ask a Question • observation the process of obtaining information by using the senses; the information obtained by using the senses • Scientific investigations often start with observations. • Observations commonly lead to questions. • Simple questions have fueled years of scientific research and have been investigated through scientific methods.

    22. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Methods, continued Form a Hypothesis • hypothesis an idea or explanation that is based on observation and that can be tested • Once a question has been asked and basic information has been gathered, a scientist may propose a tentative answer, which is also known as a hypothesis. • Most hypotheses are based on known facts about similar events.

    23. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Methods, continued Reading Check Name two ways scientific methods depend on careful observations.

    24. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Methods, continued Reading Check Name two ways scientific methods depend on careful observations. Observations may lead to interesting scientific questions and may help scientists formulate reasonable and testable hypotheses.

    25. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Methods, continued Test the Hypothesis • After a hypothesis is proposed, it is commonly tested by performing experiments. An experiment is a procedure that is carried out according to certain guidelines. • independent variable in an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated • dependent variable in an experiment, the factor that changes as a result of one or more other factors (the independent variables)

    26. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Methods, continued Draw Conclusions • After many experiments and observations, a scientist may reach conclusions about his or her hypothesis. • If the hypothesis fits the known facts, it may be accepted as true. • If the experimental results differ from what was expected, the hypothesis is changed or discarded. • The results of scientific inquiry may lead to new knowledge and new methods of inquiry that further scientific aims.

    27. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Measurements and Analysis • Measurement is the comparison of some aspect of an object or event with a standard unit. • Scientists around the world can compare and analyze each other’s measurements because scientists use a common system of measurements called the International System of Units, or SI.

    28. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Measurements and Analysis, continued Accuracy and Precision • Accuracy refers to how close a measurement is to the true value of the thing being measured. • Precision is the exactness of the measurement.

    29. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Measurements and Analysis, continued Error • Error is an expression of the amount of imprecision or variation in a set of measurements. • Error is commonly expressed as percentage error or as a confidence interval.

    30. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Measurements and Analysis, continued Observations and Models • In Earth science, using controlled experiments to test hypotheses is often impossible. • When experiments are impossible, scientists make additional observations to gather evidence. • The hypothesis is then tested by examining how well the hypothesis fits or explains all of the known evidence.

    31. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Measurements and Analysis, continued Observations and Models, continued • Scientists also use models to simulate conditions in the natural world. • A model is a description, representation, or imitation of an object, system, process, or concept. • Scientists use several types of models, including physical models, graphical models, conceptual models, mathematical models, and computer models.

    32. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Models

    33. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Measurements and Analysis, continued Reading Check Name three types of models.

    34. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Scientific Measurements and Analysis, continued Reading Check Name three types of models. Answers should include three of the following types of models: physical models, graphic models, conceptual models, computer models, and mathematical models.

    35. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Acceptance of Scientific Ideas • Scientific understanding moves forward through the work of many scientists, who build on the research of the generations of scientists before them. • When scientists reach a conclusion, they introduce their findings to the scientific community. Publication of Results and Conclusions • Scientists commonly present the results of their work in scientific journals or at professional meetings. • Results published in journals are usually written in a standard scientific format.

    36. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Acceptance of Scientific Ideas, continued Reading Check Name two places scientists present the results of their work.

    37. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Acceptance of Scientific Ideas, continued Reading Check Name two places scientists present the results of their work. Scientists present the results of their work at professional meetings and in scientific journals.

    38. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Acceptance of Scientific Ideas, continued Peer Review • Scientists follow an ethical code that states that only valid experimental results should be published. • To reduce bias, scientists submit their ideas to other scientists for peer review. • peer review the process in which experts in a given field examine the results and conclusions of a scientist’s study before that study is accepted for publication

    39. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Acceptance of Scientific Ideas, continued Formulating a Theory • When an idea has undergone much testing and reaches general acceptance, that idea may help form a theory. • theory the explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning; that is supported by a large quantity of evidence; and that does not conflict with any existing experimental results or observations • A scientific law is a general statement that explains how the natural world behaves under certain conditions and for which no exceptions have been found. • Theories and scientific laws can be changed if conflicting information is discovered in the future.

    40. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Acceptance of Scientific Ideas, continued The Importance of Interdisciplinary Science • Scientists from many disciplines commonly contribute the information necessary to support an idea • The free exchange of ideas between fields of science allows scientists to identify explanations that fit a wide range of scientific evidence. • When an explanation is supported by evidence from a variety of fields, the explanation is more likely to be accurate.

    41. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Acceptance of Scientific Ideas, continued The diagram below shows how interdisciplinary science helped develop the impact hypothesis of the extinction of the dinosaurs.

    42. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Science and Society • The work of people, including scientists, is influenced by their cultural and personal beliefs. • Science is a part of society, and advances in science can have important and long-lasting effects on both science and society.

    43. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Science and Society, continued • Science is also used to develop new technology, including new tools, machines, materials, and processes. • Sometimes technologies are designed to address a specific human need. • In other cases, technology is an indirect result of science that was directed at another goal.

    44. Chapter 1 Section 2 Science as a Process Science and Society, continued • Scientists who are involved in research that leads to new technologies have an obligation to consider the possible negative effects of their work. • Before making decisions about technology, people should consider the alternatives, risks, and costs and benefits to humans and to Earth.

    45. Chapter 1 Maps in Action Maps in Action Geologic Features and Political Boundaries in Europe

    46. Chapter 1 Introduction to Earth Science Brain Food Video Quiz

    47. Chapter 1 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice • A tested explanation of a natural phenomenon that has become widely adopted is a scientific A. hypothesis B. law C. theory D. observation

    48. Chapter 1 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued • A tested explanation of a natural phenomenon that has become widely adopted is a scientific A. hypothesis B.law C. theory D. observation

    49. Chapter 1 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. If experimental results do not match their predictions, scientists generally will F. repeat the experiment until they do match. G. make the measurements more precise. H. revise their working hypothesis. I. change their experimental results.

    50. Chapter 1 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. If experimental results do not match their predictions, scientists generally will F. repeat the experiment until they do match. G. make the measurements more precise. H. revise their working hypothesis. I. change their experimental results.