Vocabulary Study: Stems and Affixes. 2012. What is a “stem”?. Also called word “roots” Definition: word parts that contain the most basic meaning of the word Show up over and over again in many languages Most of our stems are based on Ancient Greek and Latin. Example of a stem.
What is a “stem”? • Also called word “roots” • Definition: word parts that contain the most basic meaning of the word • Show up over and over again in many languages • Most of our stems are based on Ancient Greek and Latin
Example of a stem EXTRA is a stem that means “beyond.” So… Extraordinary = BEYOND ordinary (special) Extreme = BEYOND what’s normal Extra-terrestrial = BEYOND earth (aliens!)
Why do some stems change? • Example: EXTRA in EXTREME • Spelling rules cause this to happen • We spell words differently than they did in ancient times • Try to still recognize the stems (use the definition of the word to determine if they have the same meaning)
What are affixes? • Affixes are added to words to change their meaning • There are two main types of affixes: suffixesand prefixes • While we study stems, we will also study several affixes
Prefixes • Are added to the beginning of words • Example: RE means “again.” So… REVISE = write AGAIN REDO = do AGAIN REHEARSE = practice AGAIN
Suffixes • Are added to the ends of words • Example: -ICIAN = person who does something; an occupation So… Magician = ____________ Beautician = ___________ Mortician = ____________
Let’s look at a PHOBIA book • Have you ever heard the stem Phobia? • Do you have any?
Try Figuring this one out! • Marcia’s agrizoophobia made her opt for a trip to the beach rather than a visit to Lion Country Safari. • Which word is unfamiliar? • What do you think this word means? • How do you know?
Context Clues • Stems aren’t the only thing that helped you figure out this word. You probably also used context clues • If you’re asked to look at the contextof a word, you’re supposed to look at how it’s used in a sentence or paragraph • We will work on developing skills in both context cluesand stems / affixes this year
Stem / Affix Study for the Year • You will be given 5 stems / affixes every two weeks. • During that two week period, you should practice coming up with words that contain these word parts • Use your words in sentences, stories, conversation • Contribute to the word wall AND be able to use the words you’ve contributed • Quizzes every other Friday (Quiz 1 = next Friday)
List 1 – Quiz 9/7 STEM: phob = fear SUFFIXES: -ic = relating to (used as an adjective – a word that describes) -ous = full of (adj) -ive = like (adj) -ize = to make (used as a verb – an action)
Denotation The literal meanings of words. The meanings you find in a dictionary.
Connotation The associations and emotions that have come to be attached to words.
Hollywood What is the denotation of this word?
denotation It is an area of Los Angeles, worldwide known as the center of the American movie industry.
connotation Glitz, glamour, tinsel, celebrity, stardom
She had dreams of living a Hollywood life. Connotation: She wants to be rich and famous. Denotation: She hopes to live in Hollywood, CA one day.
Come up with synonyms for the word dog. Puppy Mutt Flea-bag Hound Pooch Doggie
Which words have positive connotations? Puppy, Pooch, Doggie
Which words have negative connotations? Mutt, Flea-bag, Hound
Positive, Negative or Neutral Connotation? Thrifty Penny-pinching Pushy Aggressive
Politician Statesman Chef Cook
Slender Skinny Bony Thin
Uprising Riot Demonstration Protest
Inmate Prisoner Concentration Camp Relocation Center
Brainwash Persuade Tardy Delayed
Next, get the dictionary from under your desk. Look up the word COCKROACH
cock roach (kok' roch'), n. any of an order of nocturnal insects, usually brown with flattened oval bodies, some species of which are household pests inhabiting kitchens, areas around water pipes, etc. [Spanish cucaracha]
What does the word cockroach mean to you? Is a cockroach merely an insect or is it also a household nuisance and a disgusting creature?
Read the 2 poems and then answer the following questions: Reread the dictionary definition. Which of the denotative characteristics of a cockroach do both poets include in their poems? What characteristics does Wild give his roaches that are not in the dictionary definition? What additional characteristics does Morley give to roaches? Which poet succeeds in giving roaches favorable connotations? Which poet comes closer to expressing your own feelings about roaches?