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The Importance of Coaching in Implementation of Evidence-based Practices. Rob Horner University of Oregon Goals. Current assumptions/research about coaching Define our experience with coaching in PBS implementation Implications for building district capacity.

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the importance of coaching in implementation of evidence based practices

The Importance of Coaching in Implementation of Evidence-based Practices

Rob Horner

University of Oregon

  • Current assumptions/research about coaching
  • Define our experience with coaching in PBS implementation
  • Implications for building district capacity
coaching defined
Coaching Defined
  • Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of:
    • (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and
    • (b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior.
    • Coaching is done by someone with credibility and experience with the target skill(s)
    • Coaching is done on-site, in real time
    • Coaching is done after initial training
    • Coaching is done repeatedly (e.g. monthly)
    • Coaching intensity is adjusted to need
outcomes of coaching
Outcomes of Coaching
  • Fluency with trained skills
  • Adaptation of trained concepts/skills to local contexts and challenges
      • And new challenges that arise
  • Rapid redirection from miss-applications
  • Increased fidelity of overall implementation
  • Improved sustainability
      • Most often due to ability to increase coaching intensity at critical points in time.

10% 5% 0%

30% 20% 0%

60% 60% 5%

95% 95% 95%

Joyce & Showers, 2002

coaching within swpbs implementation
Coaching within SWPBS Implementation
  • Context:
    • 9000 schools implementing SWPBS nationally
  • Defining the Role
      • Internal vs External
  • Selecting Coaches
  • Training and support for coaches
  • Assessing Impact





Leadership Team

Active Coordination






Local Demonstration Schools

coaching vs training
Coaching vs. Training
  • Coaching involves active collaboration and participation, but not group instruction.
    • Small group
    • Build from local competence
    • Sustainable
who should be a coach
Who should be a coach?
  • Internal vs External
      • Internal coaches are employed in the school where they provide support
      • External coaches are employed outside the schools where they provide support (e.g. by district, region, state).
what coaches do
What Coaches Do
  • Work with team during initial SW-PBS training
  • Meet with new teams monthly on-site
  • Telephone/email contact as needed
  • “Positive” nag
      • Self-assessment (EBS Survey, Team Checklist)
      • Action planning
      • Activity implementation
      • On-going evaluation
        • School self-evaluation efforts
        • State-wide Initiative evaluation efforts (SET)
  • Guide State-wide initiative
      • Feedback to Taskforce
what coaches do13
What Coaches Do
  • Dissemination of outcomes and effects
  • SWIS Facilitation
    • Implement and support use of data-based decision making.
commitment of coaches
Commitment of Coaches
  • Team Support
    • First Year (1-2 teams) (participate in training and planning)
    • Second Year (Maintain initial teams, start 3-5 teams)
    • Future Years (10-15 teams total)
  • FTE commitment
    • 20-50%
  • Roles/Background
    • Behavior Specialists, Special Education Teachers
    • Consultants, Administrators
    • School Psychologists, Counselors, Social Workers
guiding principles for effective coaching
Guiding Principles for Effective Coaching
  • Build local capacity
        • Become unnecessary…but remain available
  • Maximize current competence
        • Never change things that are working
        • Always make the smallest change that will have the biggest impact
  • Focus on valued outcomes
        • Tie all efforts to the benefits for children
  • Emphasize Accountability
        • Measure and report; measure and report; measure and report.
  • Build credibility through:
        • (a) consistency, (b) competence with behavioral principles/practices, (c) relationships, (d) time investment.
  • Precorrect for success
specific expectations
Specific Expectations
  • Attend and participate in team training
  • Meet with your team(s) at least monthly
      • Provide technical assistance as needed
  • Monitor and report on team efforts
      • Team Checklist
      • EBS Survey/ SET/ ISSET
      • Annual Profile/Summary Data
  • Present on School-wide PBS at district, state, national forums.
  • Assist district to build capacity for sustained implementation (re-define your role over time)
  • Meetings with Coordinator and Taskforce for purposes of state-wide planning
assist teams in using data for decision making
Assist Teams in Using Data for Decision-making
  • Using Team-Checklist and EBS Survey data for Team Action Planning
  • Using SET/ TIC data for evaluation
  • Using ODR/ Academic (ORF) data for assessment, planning and reporting.
  • Keeping faculty involved through regular data reporting.
  • Illinois
  • North Carolina
  • Michigan
PBIS in Illinois

Lucille Eber Ed.D.

IL PBIS Network

July 17, 2008

Developing Local Systems of Care for Children and Adolescents with

Mental Health Needs and their Families

Training Institutes

Nashville, TN

the organization of pbis in illinois 900 schools implementing swpbs
The Organization of PBIS in Illinois900 schools implementing SWPBS











46 Coaches


495 Coaches


193 Coaches


105 Coaches


33 Schools

525 Schools

203 Schools

127 Schools

illinois suspension rates per 100
Illinois Suspension Rates per 100

PBS slope = -1.15

Non PBS slope = -.37

illinois suspension rates per 100 for black and hispanic students
Illinois Suspension Rates per 100 for Black and Hispanic Students

PBS Slope = -1.85

Non PBS Slope = -,34

north carolina positive behavior support initiative

North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative

Partners’ Update

February 2009

Heather R. Reynolds

NC Department of Public Instruction

Bob Algozzine

Behavior and Reading Improvement Center

north carolina positive behavior support initiative28

North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative

State PBS Coordinator

Heather R Reynolds

north carolina positive behavior support initiative29

North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative

Office discipline referral data (majors) from schools implementing PBS in North Carolina [07-08] compare favorably with national averages.

north carolina positive behavior support initiative30

North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative

Levels of behavior risk in schools implementing PBS were comparable to widely-accepted expectations and better than those in comparison schools not systematically implementing PBS.

north carolina positive behavior support initiative31

North CarolinaPositive Behavior Support Initiative

[A]chievement causes [B]ehavior?

[B]ehavior causes [A]chievement?

[Context causes [A]chievement and [B]ehavior?.

steve goodman sgoodman@oaisd org www cenmi org miblsi
Steve Goodman

  • Share information about Michigan’s Integrated Behavior and Learning Support Initiative (MiBLSi)
  • Provide examples of improving the quality and quantity of the data collected
  • Provide examples of acting upon project data to improve outcomes
participating schools
Participating Schools

2000 Model Demonstration Schools (5)

2004 Schools (21)

2005 Schools (31)

2006 Schools (50)

2007 Schools (165)

Major Discipline Referrals per 100 Students per Year (Schools implementing > 80% on Team Implementation Checklist)
dibels instructional recommendations and major discipline referral per cohort per year
DIBELS Instructional Recommendations and Major Discipline Referral per Cohort per Year

Major Discipline Referrals

DIBELS Benchmark

developing fluency with discipline referral categories
Developing Fluency with Discipline Referral Categories

Example Exercise 2: Match the example situation below to the correct problem behavior on the discipline categories answer sheet. Write the letter in the column for Exercise 2.

major discipline referrals by location
Major Discipline Referrals by Location

Began focusing on classroom management support 2005-2006

improving targeted student intervention
Improving Targeted Student Intervention

Interviews with staff and self assessment indicate a need to develop targeted support systems

checklist for individual student support systems ciss results from cohort 4 n 34 schools
Checklist for Individual Student Support Systems (CISS) Results from Cohort 4 (n=34 schools)
improving targeted student intervention strategies
Improving Targeted Student Intervention Strategies
  • Building Leadership Teams:
    • “Quick Sort” process for identifying students and linking to interventions
  • Focused training for practitioners:
    • Using Behavior Education Program (check in- checkout)
supporting coaches
Supporting Coaches
  • Conducting Self-Assessment to identify needs
  • Providing support based on results
    • Coach training 2 – 4 time per year
    • Coach manual
    • Coach website
    • Coach conference (March 13-14)
Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes:Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month

Coach returns from leave

working with school teams to use data
Working with School Teams to use data
  • Data Review/Action planning with building leadership teams
  • Pre-training coaches/principals in the data review content
  • Providing worksheets to guide data review process
lesson learned
Lesson Learned
  • Implementation cannot be faster than your school staff capacity to implement
  • Teams need to be taught how to analyze and use data
  • Emphasis on directing resources to need and removing competing activities
building capacity statewide
Building Capacity Statewide
  • Districts need capacity to:
    • Deliver regular training on core content
        • Annual orientation
        • Staff development
    • Incorporate expectations in regular staff evaluations
    • Provide expertise for more intense support need requirements.
        • Regular meetings with building personnel around “emerging challenges.”
avoid passing the planning buck
Avoid passing the planning buck
  • State asks districts to build a plan
  • Districts ask schools to build a plan
  • Schools ask teachers to build a plan
even if you re on the right track you ll get run over if you just sit there will rogers

“Even if you’re on the right track, you’ll get run over if you just sit there” - Will Rogers