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4.00260 amu. 4.03298 amu. Nuclear Forces. Mass Defect. Difference between the mass of an atom and the mass of its individual particles. Nuclear Binding Energy. Energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons. High binding energy = stable nucleus. E = mc 2. E: energy (J)

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nuclear forces

4.00260 amu

4.03298 amu

Nuclear Forces

Mass Defect

  • Difference between the mass of an atom and the mass of its individual particles.
nuclear binding energy
Nuclear Binding Energy
  • Energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons.
  • High binding energy = stable nucleus.

E = mc2

E: energy (J)

m: mass defect (kg)

c: speed of light (3.00×108 m/s)

nuclear binding energy1
Nuclear Binding Energy

The seven most widely recognized magic numbers as of 2007 are 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126

Unstable nuclides are radioactive and undergo radioactive decay.

types of radiation
Types of Radiation

Charge

Shielding

2+

paper

  • Alpha particle ()
    • helium nucleus
  • Beta particle (-)
    • electron

1-

lead

  • Positron (+)
    • positron

1+

concrete

  • Gamma ()
    • high-energy photon

0

nuclear decay
Nuclear Decay
  • Transmutation-One element becomes another.

More than 83 protons means that the nuclei is unstable (radioactive)

slide11

I. Classes of Organic Compounds

Hydrocarbons (C & H only)

Heteroatomic compounds

alcohols

aliphatic

aromatic

alkanes

ethers

aldehydes

alkenes

ketones

carboxylic acids

alkynes

esters

amines

cyclic compounds

amides

slide12

III. IUPAC Nomenclature

A. Parent chains: normal alkanes

systematic name: {side groups}parent chain{suffix}

Parent names:

CH4 methane n-C11H24 undecane

CH3CH3 ethane n-C12H26 dodecane

CH3CH2CH3 propane n-C13H28 tridecane

CH3(CH2)2CH3 butane n-C14H30 tetradecane

CH3(CH2)3CH3 pentane ¦

CH3(CH2)4CH3 hexane n-C20H42 icosane

n-C7H16 heptane n-C30H62 triacontane

n-C8H18 octane n-C40H82 tetracontane

n-C9H20 nonane ¦

n-C10H22 decane etc.

know

to here

(teens)

slide13

II. Alkanes

B. Isomers: normal and branched alkanes

  • “butane” lighters:
    • 5% n-butane
    • 95% isobutane

C4H10

n-butane

“straight chain”

constitutional

isomers

isobutane

branched chain

slide14

II. Alkanes

B. Isomers: normal and branched alkanes

C5H12

n-pentane

isopentane

neopentane

C6H14 5 isomers

C10H22 75 isomers

C20H42 366,319 isomers

obviously need system of nomenclature