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p art three: the marketing mix. Chapter 8 promotion. an opening challenge. You run a small, specialist soft drinks firm. Your marketing budget is a tiny fraction of your major competitors and you certainly cannot afford television advertising.

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an opening challenge
an opening challenge

You run a small, specialist soft drinks firm. Your marketing budget is a tiny fraction of your major competitors and you certainly cannot afford television advertising.

How will you get your brand noticed by potential customers?

agenda
agenda
  • the promotion mix
  • managing promotional activities
  • objectives
  • promotion strategy
  • marketing communications process
  • marketing communications tools
  • regulations
  • budgets
mixes

Promotion

Mix

mixes

Place

Marketing

Mix

Product

Price

advertising

sales promotion

personal selling

direct marketing

packaging

public relations

slide5

promotion

=

marketing

communications

promotion management
promotion management
  • setting objectives
  • setting budgets
  • designing marketing programmes/campaigns
  • implementing campaigns
  • checking the results of campaigns (evaluation and control)
the objectives of promotion what is it meant to achieve
the objectives of promotion what is it meant to achieve?

create brand awareness

build brand image

inform

remind

educate

break into new market

change/reinforce attitudes

stimulate trial

get into purchase consideration set

regain lost customers

obtain information

re-position

increase usage

targeted objectives
targeted objectives
  • key to the organisation’s direction
    • strategies are devised to meet objectives
  • objectives should be SMART
    • specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, timed
  • aim at a specific target audience
audience or market
audience or market?
  • markets are customers/consumers
    • people who buy or use things
  • audiences listen or watch
  • so promotional activities are targeted at audiences
    • who may or may not be customers/consumers
promotional strategy
promotional strategy

market analysis

target audiences

SMART objectives

strategies

push

pull

promotional strategy1
promotional strategy
  • a subset of overall marketing strategy
  • informed by branding and positioning
  • overall marketing communications strategy plus campaign strategies
  • overview of how objectives will be achieved
    • the details go in the plan
  • push strategies
    • aimed at the trade
  • pull strategies
    • aimed at consumers
a simple communications model 1
a simple communications model: 1

receiver

sender

channel

encoding

decoding

message

a simple communications model 2
a simple communications model: 2

noise

receiver

sender

distortion

distortion

a simple communications model 3
a simple communications model: 3

receiver

sender

channel

encoding

decoding

message

feedback

(Schramm, 1955)

the promotional mix
the promotional mix
  • advertising
    • paid for, mass media
  • public relations (PR)
    • media relations, sponsorship, exhibitions, hospitality, celebrity endorsement
  • sales promotion
    • discounts, special offers, competitions
  • personal selling
    • b2b, retail, telesales
influencing customers
influencing customers

A

I

D

A

attention

interest

desire

action

think

feel

do

promotion tools
promotion tools
  • advertising
  • public relations
  • sales promotion
  • personal selling
  • direct marketing
  • packaging
  • sponsorship
creative executions
creative executions
  • slice of life
  • animation & CGI
  • endorsement
  • celebrity
  • news-style
  • fantasy
  • spoof or parody
  • demonstration
  • comedy
  • audience participation
  • music
media
media

media class or category,

e.g. television

media vehicles

e.g.

EastEnders

media vehicles

public relations pr
public relations (PR)

‘the determined, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics. Also understood as reputation management’ (Chartered Institute of Public Relations, 2010)

pr techniques
PR techniques
  • publicity or media relations
  • publications
  • corporate communications
  • community relations
  • lobbying
  • sponsorship
  • product placement
  • branded content
  • events management
  • crisis management
sales promotion
sales promotion

short-term special offers which add value to a product offering

benefits of sales promotion
benefits of sales promotion
  • good at increasing sales
  • effectiveness can be easily measured
  • has accurate targeting
  • can keep budget down
  • has an almost immediate effect
  • creates interest in products
typical sales promotion objectives
typical sales promotion objectives
  • stimulate product trial
    • which may lead to regular purchase
  • introduce a new product to the market
  • combat/spoil a competitor’s campaign
  • encourage greater product use
    • and so more frequent purchase
personal selling
personal selling

prospecting

preparing

making the appointment

following up

the call or pitch

closing

objection handling

a salesperson s job
a salesperson’s job
  • buyer/seller team coordinator
  • customer service provider
  • buyer behaviour expert
  • information gatherer
  • market analyst and planner
  • sales forecaster
  • market cost analyst
  • technologist
direct marketing
direct marketing

‘the planned recording, analysis and tracking of individual customers’ responses and transactions for the purpose of developing and prolonging mutually profitable customer relationships’ (Institute of Direct Marketing, 2010)

direct marketing communications
direct marketing communications
  • personal contact
  • looking for a direct response
    • better feedback
  • database marketing
  • direct response advertising
dm media selection aimrite
DM media selection: AIMRITE

Audience

Impact

Message

Response

Internal Management

The End Result

(Pickton and Broderick, 2004)

uk regulations
UK regulations
  • advertising standards code
    • legal
    • decent
    • honest
    • truthful
  • similar principles in other codes of practice
    • sales promotion, sponsorship
  • for up-to-date rules, visit the ASA website at: http://www.asa.org.uk
setting budgets
setting budgets
  • arbitrary method
    • judgement call
  • affordable method
    • tends to result in low budgets
  • competitive parity method
    • but did the competition get it right?
  • objective and task method
    • time-consuming but accurate
  • percentage of sales method
    • commonly used, but which year’s sales?
summary
summary
  • clear campaign objectives
  • good market understanding
  • clearly identified target audience
    • and the means to reach them
  • originality and creativity
    • so the message is correctly received
  • a variety of tools to integrate into the campaign
references
references
  • Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR) (n.d.) CIPR website. Available at http://www.cipr.co.uk/content/policy-resources/jargon-buster (accessed 30/06/10).
  • Institute of Direct Marketing (IDM) (n.d.) IDM website. Available at: http://www.theidm.com/resources/jargon-buster (accessed 15/05/10).
  • Pickton, D.W. and Broderick, A. (2004) Integrated Marketing Communications, 2nd edn. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall.
  • Schramm, W. (1955) ‘How communication works’, in W. Schramm (ed.), The Process and Effects of Mass Communications. Champaign:University of Illinois Press, pp. 3–26.