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About the exam:

Language movements Survival projects Important moments in the history of Celtic peoples The ‘colonial gaze’. Understanding the Jacobites Who the different peoples are The most important cultures within Early Celtic Civilization. About the exam:. About the exam…. The colonial gaze:

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About the exam:

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  1. Language movements Survival projects Important moments in the history of Celtic peoples The ‘colonial gaze’ Understanding the Jacobites Who the different peoples are The most important cultures within Early Celtic Civilization. About the exam:

  2. About the exam… • The colonial gaze: • http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/074793604871266?journalCode=desi • http://discoatemybaby.wordpress.com/2011/08/18/the-colonial-gaze-ii/ • How the colonizer views the colonized.

  3. Ellan Vannin The Isle of Man

  4. Celtic Club: Revision Session The Celtic Club will be holding a revision session on Thursday, December 8th, from 1-3pm in LMX 221 for the courses CLT 1132, CLT2170, CLT3330.

  5. Arriving in the Isle of Man

  6. Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin) http://www.isleofman.com/index.aspx

  7. Tynwald • the Island's 1,000 year old Parliament, makes its own laws and oversees all internal administration, fiscal and social policies. External issues, such as foreign representation and defence, are administered on the Island's behalf by the U.K. Government. The Island makes an annual payment for these services.

  8. Government of Isle of Man • As a Crown dependency, the ultimate responsibility for the government of the Island is vested in the Crown. By long standing convention, the U.K. Government does not legislate for the Island except with the specific consent of the Island's Government.

  9. Manx National Heritage. • http://www.gov.im/MNH/

  10. Centre for Manx Studies • http://www.liv.ac.uk/manxstudies/ • Founded in 1992. • The students in the MA programme publish an e-journal of Manx Studies. • http://dbweb.liv.ac.uk/manxstudies/sm/smdefault.htm

  11. Isle of Man • There is evidence that the Isle of Man was originally inhabited by Britons (evidence of names on ogam stomes), but from the late Roman period, Irish interest in the island grew. • The Isle of Man became an outpost of Irish culture long before the Viking invasions. • The Isle of Man was part of the Irish Sea ‘ogam zone’ by the fifth century.

  12. Isle of Man • The island was occupied by the Vikings (Scandinavians) between the ninth century to 1266. • Over the following centuries it was the ‘possession’ of various lords and other magnates. • After 1765 it became an appenage of the British Crown. Gaelic in Man survived all these periods.

  13. Isle of Man • The language of the population of Man was a variety of Irish, which down the centuries evolved into what is called Manx. It is sometimes also called Manx Gaelic (ie Gaelic of the Isle of Man). • .

  14. Ellan Vannin • The only records for the existence of the Manx language before the 17th century consist of names of persons and places on rune stones, and on lists of names, eg the rent-roll. • Manx was largely similar to Irish and Scottish Gaelic until the 13th century, but following that period its evolution became more progressive

  15. The Manx Language- Gaelg • The separation of Manx from its Gaelic roots in Ireland, and the written tradition there meant that Manx was largely transmitted orally on the island. • When Manx was written from the beginning of the 17th century, a spelling system based on English was adopted, unlike Irish and Scottish Gaelic. • In addition, with the modern evolution of Manx pronunciation, the spelling does not always represent the pronunciation of the language.

  16. Isle of Man • Following his consecration as bishop of Man in 1604, John Phillips ( a Welshman from NE Wales) translated the Book of Common Prayer into Manx. This version was not published until 1894. • In 1775 the whole of the Bible was translated into Manx. A new Manx translation of the Book of Common Prayer appeared in 1748. • There is no early literature in Manx. There were it seems Fenian tales in ballad form ( a fragment from 1789).

  17. Isle of Man • Another ballad called Mannanan Beg Mac y Leirr gives the history of the Island up to the year 1507. • Various publication in Manx appeared during the 19th and early 20th century based on fragments of folklore and song. Especially in this group are the Manx carvals, religious folksongs. • A late ninteenth century collection of folktales by Ned Beg (Edward Faragher) was published in 1981-2.

  18. The Manx Language-Gaelg • In 1901, out of a population of 55,000, only 4,400 now spoke Manx. • By 1921, the situation had much worsened. Only 876 now spoke Manx. • In 1931, there were 529 speakers of Manx. • In 1948, there were only 20. • The last reputed native speaker of Manx was Ned Maddrell, who died in 1974.

  19. Ned Maddrell

  20. Manx language clips • www.youtube.com/watch?v=-286xpqtC7M

  21. Manx as a Revived Language (stage1) • The revival of Manx could be said to have started in 1899 with the foundation of the Manx Language Society (Yn Çheshaght Ghaeilckagh). • It still exists today, and stands for: • The preservation of Manx as the national language of the Isle of Man. • The study and publication of existing Gaelic literature and the cultivation of modern literature in Manx.

  22. Manx as a Revived Language (stage2) • It was still possible during the second phase (c1930-1939) for Manx enthusiasts to learn the language from the remaining Manx speakers. • The emphasis on language as the main marker of national identity can be seen in the express used by the YCG ‘Gyn çhengey, gyn çheer’.

  23. Manx as a Revived Language (stage3) • Emphasis on Manx in Manx life on the island increased in the past few decades. • Some Manx was always used by teachers speaking to their Manx students. • But in 1974, a new director of education, Alun Davies, was appointed and this heralded a beginning in Manx classes in the school system. • In 1982, external exams were instituted in Manx which were taken at school or in evening classes.

  24. Manx in school • In 1992, the Manx government brought out an act that permitted Manx as an optional subject at school. • In 2001. a new act: • To provide Manx language teaching in schools for those pupils whose parents wish them to learn. • To foster a sense of identity and develop self-confidence. • To promote positive attitudes to Manx culture. • To promote positive attitudes to language learning. • http://www.gov.im/education/support/external/external_manx.xml

  25. Manx-medium school: Bunscoill Ghaelgach • http://www.bunscoill.iofm.net/ • http://www.gov.im/education/support/external/external_manx.xml • http://www.sch.im/bunscoill/bgcontents.php • In the autumn of 1999, Sheshaght Ny Paarantyn (The Parents' society) was established and they spoke to the Department of Education about establishing a Manx-medium unit or school. By the spring of 2001 the Department of Education confirmed that the first Brastyl Gaelgagh (Manx Class) would open in September 2001 in Ballacottier School in Douglas.

  26. Manx Revitalization: writing in Manx • In the latter part of the 19th century low prestige had led to non-transmission of the language by parents to their children. • In 1979 it was estimated that there were some 2000 people who had a second-language knowledge of the Manx language. This was probably an exageration. • In 2001, the census reported 1689 speakers of the language.

  27. Manx: the process of revitalization • During the 1950s, the Chesaght Ghailckagh published 14 editions of a journal called ‘Gaelic Voice’- Coraa Ghailckagh- which included a rich seam of new Manx writing. • One of the new authors was Juan Comish who later relocated to Kirkland Lake, Ontario.

  28. Manx: the process of revitalization • ‘Coraa Ghailckagh’ introduced readers to new authors, new translations. • One of those authors John Gell also produced an epoque-making work called ‘Conversational Manx’ in 1954. his short-stories owe much to his close knowledge of the last native speakers of Manx.

  29. Manx: the process of revitalization • Other writers like Robert L.Thomson imitated the ‘classical Manx’ style of the Manx Bible translation of the 18th century.

  30. Brian Stowell and his generation • By the 1960s and 1970s new teaching materials became available. • Manx Radio started to broadcast short weekly summaries of the news after the early 1970s. • Manx began as well to appear in the local newspaper The Manx Star.

  31. Manx: the process of revitalization • In the late 1970s the writer of these Manx articles was Doug Fargher who is best known for his English-Manx dictionary published in 1979. • ‘Learning Manx’, 1977.

  32. Brian Stowell • One of the most important cultural activists on the Isle of Man is Brian Stowell. • His contribution has been not only in the field of teaching Manx as a second language but also as a creative writer in the language.

  33. Brian Stowell • Brian Stowell was appointed as the first Manx Language Officer to the Isle of Man Government in 1992. • He and a team of two teachers developed a Manx course for use in schools. • Since then a substantial percentage of the younger generation has received a grounding in the Manx language.

  34. Brian Stowell • Brian Stowell has also had published a full-length novel in 2005 called ‘Dunveryssyn yn Tooder-Folley’ (The Vampire Murders), a murder mystery which also satirized certain elements of Manx society.

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