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Thursday 4/21/11. Today: Please get a wksht and a partner. Hmwk : Read pgs. 238-253 in Pink/Purple bk Complete the ‘Task’ on pg. 255 for a quiz grade. Hmwk is DUE Monday 4/25. Totalitarianism.

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thursday 4 21 11
Thursday 4/21/11
  • Today: Please get a wksht and a partner.
  • Hmwk: Read pgs. 238-253 in Pink/Purple bk
    • Complete the ‘Task’ on pg. 255 for a quiz grade. Hmwk is DUE Monday 4/25
  • A government that aims to control the political, economic, social, intellectual and cultural lives of its citizens.
    • New form of dictatorship in 20th century
fascism in italy
Fascism in Italy
  • Fascism- a political philosophy that glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a doctorial leader.
    • People are controlled by the gov’t and any opposition is suppressed.
italy after wwi
Italy after WWI
  • Mass male population loss
    • Out 6 million conscripted-2 million dead, captured & wounded/disabled
  • Severe inflation
    • Industrial and agricultural workers strike demanding creation of ‘factory councils’ through which they could bargain with employers
  • Land Occupations
    • Returning soldiers and peasants seized control of barren land /uncultivated and forced landlords to sell at cheap prices
fascist movement is born
Fascist Movement is Born
  • Employers/Landlords blamed revolutionary demands on Russian Revolution influence and demanded gov’t take suppressive action
    • When gov’t didn’t take action then, employers/landlords gathered tenant farmers, veteran soldiers and urban middle class to use violence to submit and suppress these new ‘socialists’
fascism s birthday march 1919
Fascism’s Birthday-March 1919
  • Fascio Combattimento (Combat Group) by former school teacher, Benito Mussolini.
  • Grew into an anti-socialist force; combatting socialist unions and Catholic peasant leagues.
  • Soon Mussolini’s movement was joined by the support of Employers/Landlords looking to fight against socialist.
benito mussolini 1883 1945
Benito Mussolini 1883-1945
  • Founder of first fascist movement
  • Unruly child-expelled for stabbing fellow pupil
  • Elementary school teacher
  • Prior socialist party member, but expelled
growth of fascism
Growth of Fascism
  • Parliament elections May 1921
    • Using Nationalistic ideals, fascists won 35 seats
  • November 1921-declared itself political party
    • PartitoNazionaleFascista (PNF)
    • Supported monarchy and free tade
  • By 1922- Employers/Landowners (middle class) feared socialism and communism.
    • People were angry they received so little land in WWI peace treaty agreement.
prime minister mussolini
Prime Minister Mussolini
  • August 1922-fascist group had plans to overthrow gov’t and install new regime in Rome
  • Against other opinion-King Emmanuel III does NOT counter any fascist march and the Prime Minister resigns in protest…
  • October 29, 1922-Mussolini appointed Prime Minister

King Emmanuel III

consolidation of power
Consolidation of Power
  • 1923- Mussolini creates a national fascist militia and Fascist Grand Council
  • July 1923- Acerbo Law
    • Gives leading party at general election 2/3 seats in parliament
  • Summer 1924-socialist deputy, GiacomoMatteotti is stabbed to death by fascists
  • 1925- Mussolini intends to dictate a more autocratic gov’t
  • 1926-Mussolini acknowledged as head of fascist party…only answered to the king
fascist italy
Fascist Italy
  • 1926- outlawed other political parties
  • Established secret police- OVRA to watch citizens and enforce poilicies
  • Control mass media- newspapers, radio, films and spread ‘simple’ propaganda (“Mussolini is always right.”)
  • 1939-Fascist youth groups formed to promote military activities and values
  • Women seen as foundation of family and state
  • Overall NOT as severe as Stalin or Hitler…King Emmanuel III always stayed in power
domestic policies
Domestic Policies
  • The Lateran Accords, 1929- improved relations with the papacy
    • Recognized Vatican City
  • The Corporate State, 1930’s- formation of several levels of corporations set to regulate economic activity
    • Benefited employers and the state
    • System suffered under depression period
  • Modernization of Italian Economy
    • Changed exchange rate, provided loans, increased wheat production, land reclamation and improvement
foreign policies
Foreign Policies
  • The Corfu crisis- Italian official murdered in Greece
    • Mussolini demands Greek island, Corfu and $
    • Mussolini wanted dispute settled by the Conference of Ambassadors NOT League of Nations
    • Britain opposed Italy’s action and only agreed to COA settling dispute if Italy returned Corfu to Greece
    • Italy realized the need to be on Britain’s ‘good side’
foreign policies1
Foreign Policies
  • Due to struggling economy during depression period and relatively small military power- Mussolini sought expansion in ‘cheap’ ways
    • Accumulation of Yugoslav territory of Fiume
    • Protectorate of Albania
    • Africa territory (limited)
    • Abyssinia treaty 1929
foreign policies2
Foreign Policies
  • The Abyssinian crisis
    • Hitler admired Mussolini
    • Hitler first met him 1934
    • Caused concern for Britain and France
    • Mussolini wanted Italian expansion in Africa for help to suppress Hitler Germany
    • League turns a ‘blind eye’ to Italian troops forced take-over of Abyssinia in Africa
foreign policies3
Foreign Policies
  • Spanish Civil War-
    • July 1936 thru 1939
    • Mussolini backed the rebels led by General Franco
    • Attempt to expand Italian influence overshadowed by Nazi Germany
  • The Rome-Berlin Axis-
    • October 1936 first agreement
    • Mussolini joins forces with Hitler
    • Italy struggles economically and politically
  • Mussolini killed 1945 by Italian Resistance and hung
  • Bring BOTH textbooks with you!!!