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Thermochemistry. After reading Section 11.1, you should know:. The relationship between energy and heat The difference between heat capacity and specific heat How to determine whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic . Energy Transformations. Thermochemistry

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

After reading Section 11.1, you should know:

  • The relationship between energy and heat
  • The difference between heat capacity and specific heat
  • How to determine whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic
energy transformations
Energy Transformations
  • Thermochemistry
    • the study of heat changes that occur during chemical reactions
  • Energy
    • The capacity to do work or produce heat
types of energy
Types of Energy
  • Chemical potential energy – energy stored within the structural units of chemical substances.
  • Kinetic energy – energy an object has because of its motion
heat vs temperature
Heat vs. Temperature
  • Heat (q) – a form of energy
    • flows from a warmer region to a cooler one.
  • Temperature – a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in a substance.
system vs surroundings
System vs. Surroundings
  • system – the part of the universe upon which attention is focused
  • surroundings – the remainder of the universe that is outside the system
endothermic vs exothermic
Endothermic vs. Exothermic
  • endothermic – heat flows into the system; heat is absorbed from the surroundings; surroundings become cold; ∆H > 0 (heat change is positive)
  • exothermic– heat flows out of the system; heat is released from the system to the surroundings; surroundings become hot; ∆H < 0 (heat change is negative)
slide9

Endothermic vs Exothermic

  • Endothermic
  • P.E. (products)>P.E. (reactants)
  • ∆H>0 (positive)
  • Heat absorbed
  • Surroundings cold
  • Heat is a reactant
  • Energy to break bonds > energy to make bonds
  • Exothermic
  • P.E. (products)<P.E. (reactants)
  • ∆H<0 (negative)
  • Heat released
  • Surroundings hot
  • Heat is a product
  • Energy to break bonds < energy to make bonds
heat capacity
Heat Capacity
  • Heat Capacity – amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of an object by 1C.
    • The greater the mass of the object, the greater the heat capacity.
specific heat
Specific Heat (Cp) – amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of a substance by 1C.

Cp = heat/(mass * ΔTemp)

units (J/goC)

Water has a high specific heat compared to other substances

Specific Heat
after reading section 11 1 you should know
After reading Section 11.1, you should know:
  • The relationship between energy and heat
  • The difference between heat capacity and specific heat
  • How to determine whether a reaction is endothermic or exothermic