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Effects of Watershed Acidification on Soil Water and Stream Water Chemistry. H 2 SO 4. HNO 3. Soil Surface. SO 4 2- + H +. H + + NO 3 -. H 2 SO 4. HNO 3. Soil Surface. SO 4 2- + H +. H + + NO 3 -. Soil Charge. H 2 SO 4. HNO 3. Soil Surface. SO 4 2- + H +.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Effects of Watershed Acidification

on Soil Water and

Stream Water Chemistry

slide2

H2SO4

HNO3

Soil Surface

SO42- + H+

H+ + NO3-

slide3

H2SO4

HNO3

Soil Surface

SO42- + H+

H+ + NO3-

Soil Charge

slide4

H2SO4

HNO3

Soil Surface

SO42- + H+

H+ + NO3-

Mobile Anion Theory

slide5

H2SO4

HNO3

Soil Surface

SO42- + H+

H+ + NO3-

Cation exchange

SO42- + cations

NO3- + cations

slide6

2H+

2H+

H+

Ca2+

Mg2+

K+

Ca2+

Mg2+

K+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

slide7

CaSO4 or Ca(NO3)2

MgSO4 or Mg(NO3)2

K2SO4 or KNO3

leach through soil

Base cations in solution pair with mobile anions in solution

Ca2+

Mg2+

K+

SO42- or NO3-

SO42- or NO3-

SO42- or NO3-

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

slide8

H2SO4

HNO3

Soil Surface

SO42- + H+

H+ + NO3-

SO42- + cations

NO3- + cations

Leaches

from soil

Leaches

from soil

slide9

H2SO4

HNO3

Soil Surface

SO42- + H+

H+ + NO3-

Acidifies soil and

dissolves soil Al3+

slide10

3H+

3H+

3H+

Al3+

Al3+

Al3+

Al3+

Al3+

Al3+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

Al Dissolution and Exchange

slide11

leach through soil

Al2(SO4)3 or Al(NO3)3

Al3+

Al3+

Al3+

SO42- or NO3-

SO42- or NO3-

SO42- or NO3-

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

H+

slide12

H2SO4

HNO3

Soil Surface

SO42- + H+

H+ + NO3-

Acidifies soil and

dissolves soil Al3+

SO42- + Al3+

NO3- + Al3+

leached to streams & lakes

Al3+ is toxic to aquatic

organisms

Soluble Al3+

interferes with plant root

functions

Al3+ can reduce plant vigor

and growth

slide13

Process Summary

  • Mobile/excess anions control base cation and acid cation leaching
  • Base cation leaching = loss of soil base cations/nutrients/fertility
  • Acid cation leaching results in acidification of soil water and stream water
sulfate deposition across the ne
Sulfate Deposition across the NE
  • Some of the highest rates in the country
  • Orographic uplifting and high elevation ridges
  • Primary sources – Ohio River Valley
soil chemistry monitoring program
Soil Chemistry Monitoring Program

Objective: Gather baseline soil chemistry data across the forest for multiple soil types across multiple geologies

  • Accomplished through a state wide partnership with NRCS Soil Survey Division, West Virginia University, and USFS
  • Over 400 soil pedons characterized in the state
  • 2006 Forest Plan requires monitoring of sensitive areas for the purpose of conducting management activities
  • Wilderness Areas
    • Class 1 Air Monitoring Program
    • Academia
acid deposition sensitivity map
Acid Deposition Sensitivity Map
  • Soil Forming Factors
    • PARENT MATERIAL
    • GEOLOGY
    • WEATHERING RATES
  • Based on geochemistry
  • Compared against 303d impaired stream list for acid rain effects
  • Soils used to ground truth map in sensitive watersheds
resource effects acid deposition
Resource Effects - Acid Deposition

Water Chemistry & Watershed Sensitivity on the Monongahela NF

non management effects
Non-Management Effects
  • Effects may include:
    • Decreasing stream pH, ANC, increasing metal concentrations
    • Declining fish populations and species
    • Base cation losses in the soil
    • Foliar macronutrient imbalances
    • Shifts in biodiversity in the understory vegetation
resource effects acid deposition1
Resource EffectsAcid Deposition

WATER

  • Effects may include:
    • Changes in Stream chemistry -decreases in Stream pH and ANC
    • High Levels of Iron and Aluminum
    • Nitrogen and Sulfate Leaching from Watershed Soils
    • Ultimately, losses or Shifts in Stream Biota Populations
soil chemistry monitoring program1
Soil Chemistry Monitoring Program
  • Objective: Gather baseline soil chemistry data
  • Forest Wide
    • Watershed Assessments
    • NRCS data collection for soil survey updates
  • Project Specific
    • Soil Disturbing activities
  • Wilderness Areas
    • Class 1 Air Monitoring Program
    • Academia
  • Archive Soil Samples
slide21

High

Moderate

Low

Alluvium

Anthony Creek Watershed 2007 Sampling

criteria used to assess risk
Criteria Used to Assess Risk
  • Soil Chemistry
    • Ca:Al Ratios (SrCl2 Extraction Method; Penn State University Lab)
    • Base Saturation
    • Effective Cation Exchange Capacity (ECEC)
  • Stream Chemistry
  • Foliar Indicators
  • Air Quality
mitigations
Mitigations
  • Long harvest rotations 100 years
  • No whole tree harvesting; leave tops and limbs
  • Avoid harvesting in areas with shallow soils
  • Minimize soil disturbance
  • Prescribe fire?
  • Chemical additions ?
liming
Liming
  • Why?
  • Has this been done before?
  • Cost Efficient?
  • Effects
    • Pros and Cons
stream liming
Stream Liming

Cherry River Watershed Lime Dump

Cranberry River Watershed Liming Drum Station

effects to the soil from liming
Effects to the Soil from Liming
  • Pulses of nitrate and sulfate leaching in the months post application
  • pH does not readily increase in mineral (A, E, and B) horizons
  • Response held to the O, A, and possibly transition horizons (AE, AB, BA, etc.)
  • [Al] and [Mn] decrease, [Ca] and [Mg] increase in soils