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Combustion Limits in Fire and Explosion Hazards

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  1. CONFIDENTIAL Combustion Limits in Fire and Explosion Hazards Geoff Chamberlain and Jonathan Puttock, Major Hazards Management Team, Shell Global solutions UK, Chester.

  2. Early Experiments – G. Kalghatgi, 1981 • Determined the blow out limits for subsonic gases. • Established universal stability curve.

  3. Experimental results – Mach No. v burner diameter q q q

  4. Flame stability in still air – natural gas

  5. Experiments in crosswinds – lifted flames • Sheffield University wind tunnel at Buxton • Burners 2-20 mm, crosswinds up to 8m/s • Methane, propane, Butagas (propane/butane mix), ethylene • Results non-dimensionalised using the grouping • Flames are less stable when burner tilted away from wind

  6. Flame stability – lifted flames in crosswind

  7. VideoWake stabilised flames

  8. CONFIDENTIAL The Universal Flame Stability Map

  9. Wake stabilised flames – effect of burner tilt • Burner tilted away from flame, flame is more stable – opposite effect with lifted flames.

  10. Bradley et al – simulation heat release contours MW/m3. Jet mean velocity 20m/s, crosswind 5.5 m/s. 10mm diam.CMC flamelet combustion model. HPCx Daresbury. q q

  11. Bradley et al – simulation heat release contours and velocity vectors close to burner tip. q q q

  12. Flammability Limits – Fuel/air/water vapour system. Flame extinction and oscillatory flames in compartments. q q