standard l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
STANDARD PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
STANDARD

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

STANDARD - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 218 Views
  • Uploaded on

STANDARD. Anything serving as a type or pattern to which other like things must conform (Stedman’s Medical Dictionary) STANDARD OF CARE

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'STANDARD' - moriah


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
standard
STANDARD

Anything serving as a type or pattern to which other like things must conform (Stedman’s Medical Dictionary)

STANDARD OF CARE

The level at which the average, prudent provider in a given situation would managed the patient’s care under the same or similar circumstances. (Webster’s New World Medical Dictionary)

standard of care
STANDARD OF CARE

Standard of care is whatever the public

has been trained to accept, no matter how good or bad

research standard of care 1
Research Standard of Care (1)
  • Respect for the dignity of all participants
  • Doing what is in the best interest of the participants
  • Distribution of risks and benefits
  • Meaningful informed consent
  • Conduct only research that will benefit the community in which the research is being done
research standard of care 2
Research Standard of Care (2)
  • Translating research findings so that they are relevant to the population in which the research was conducted
  • Avoiding conflicts of interest and exploitation

[Adapted from Benatar and Singer.A new look at international research ethics) BMJ 321(7264) p 824-6, 2000]

standard of care other issues
Standard of Care – Other Issues
  • Duration of treatment to treatment group if successful
  • Treatment for control group at conclusion of trial – how long?
  • Provision of treatment/intervention to community in which the study was done
slide6

What should be the standard of care for a control group for a study of the effectiveness of a single prophylactic dose of tenofovir/AZT to prevent HIV in offspring of HIV-infected pregnant women?

argument in favor of western standard of care 1
Argument in favor of Western standard of care (1)
  • Standard of care is a universal concept
  • Declaration of Helsinki – best proven therapeutic method for all subjects
  • Declaration of Helsinki – primary of research subject’s well-being
  • CIOMS – there should be no “double standard” in research. Not ethical to exploit vulnerable populations
argument in favor of western standard of care 2
Argument in favor of Western standard of care (2)
  • The principal support for the claim that research participants in developing countries must be provided the worldwide best care comes from the 1996 version of the Declaration of Helsinki:
    • ‘‘in any medical study, every patient—including those of a control group, if any—should be assured of the best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method’’
  • After contentious debate, the WMA upheld this position at its 2000 Edinburgh meeting, adopting essentially the same principle, with the minor modification of changing ‘‘best proven method’’ to ‘‘best current method’’
argument in favor of western standard of care 3
Argument in favor of Western standard of care (3)
  • Importantly, not only does this position require that research participants in control groups in randomized trials receive the worldwide best care, but that all participants in all research studies in developing countries receive the best available diagnostic tests
  • In addition, it precludes early phase testing of drugs or interventions that might be an improvement over existing treatment in the host country if they are likely to be less beneficial than the available treatment in developed countries
argument in favor of western standard of care 4
Argument in favor of Western standard of care (4)
  • The Declaration of Helsinki’s position has been defended on several grounds:
    • Firstly, some have argued that it is always possible to test interventions that may benefit developing countries against the best proven treatment; all that is required is methodological ingenuity, not ethical compromise
    • Others argue that even if obtaining useful data for developing countries sometimes requires that research participants receive less than the worldwide best care, it is nonetheless unethical to do so
      • Such trials violate researchers’ obligations to their patients, and create an insidious double standard that accepts for the poor what it rejects as unethical for the rich
  • The decision by the WMA to uphold the requirement for a universal standard of care in clinical trials seemed based mostly on the latter concern
  • Because many people regard the Declaration of Helsinki as the final word regarding research ethics, the requirement may come to be viewed as definitive by the research community
  • It has gone largely unnoticed that the Declaration of Helsinki in fact turns out to be the minority opinion
exceptions to arguments in favor of western standard of care 1
Exceptions to arguments in favor of Western standard of care (1)
  • A number of groups have recently outlined three conditions on ethically acceptable exceptions to providing research participants the worldwide best standard of care:
    • Valid science: there must be a valid scientific reason for using a lower standard of care than that available elsewhere
    • Social benefits: the research must provide a sufficient level of benefit for the host community
    • Favorable individual risk:benefit ratio: there must be an acceptable balance of risks and potential benefits for the individual participants in the trial
exceptions to arguments in favor of western standard of care 2
Exceptions to arguments in favor of Western standard of care (2)
  • The recent revision of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) guidelines provides the clearest statement of the need for a scientifically valid reason for using a lower standard of care
    • The scientific and ethical review committee must be satisfied that the established effective intervention cannot be used as comparator, because its use would not yield scientifically reliable results that would be relevant to the health needs of the study population
exceptions to arguments in favor of western standard of care 3
Exceptions to arguments in favor of Western standard of care (3)
  • CIOMS adopts the strictest interpretation of the social benefit condition
  • Not only does it demand that the purpose of the trial is to identify a more affordable or logistically simpler treatment for the host community, but that the ‘‘purpose of the study is to make available to the population of the country or community an effective alternative to an established effective intervention that is locally unavailable.’’
  • Thus, CIOMS seems to require not merely the possible usefulness or relevance of the intervention, but a concrete plan at the start of these trials that ensures the intervention will be provided if the research trial proves the treatment safe and effective
exceptions to arguments in favor of western standard of care 4
Exceptions to arguments in favor of Western standard of care (4)
  • The third condition requires an acceptable risk:benefit ratio for individual research participants from developing countries
  • Practically, this means that the participants should not be denied any treatments with significant benefits that they would ordinarily receive
  • In this sense, research participants should be no worse off than they would be if they did not participate in the trial
arguments in favor of local standard of care
Arguments in favor of local standard of care
  • CiOMS/Belmont – the research must meet the needs and interests of the host country – beneficence
  • Comparison to Western standard of care unlikely to provide results that are useful to developing countries
  • Goal should be finding treatment that is affordable, feasible and relevant for the country
standard of care other issues17
Standard of Care – Other Issues

If trial is successful:

  • Duration of treatment/intervention in experimental group
  • Treatment of control group post-trial - duration
  • Provision of treatment/intervention in host community