“Rear View? What’s he mean reaR view?” “HE DIDN’T SAY REAR VIEW STUPID! HE SAID REVIEW!!”
THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX AND YOUR COMFORT ZONE COMFORT ZONE THINK NEW WAYS QUESTION EVERYTHING HAVE NEW EXPERIENCES
BIASES Bias is an inclination to present or hold a partial perspective at the expense of alternatives that may also be valid.
STEREOTYPES • A stereotype is an exaggerated belief, image or distorted truth about a person or a group. This generalization does not allow for individual differences or social variation. These stereotypes may come from the mass media, family discussions, close friends, personal experience, etc. Stereotypes can be both negative and positive. • Our identities and how we identify others often determines • some of our stereotypes.
Prejudice Prejudice is an opinion, prejudgment or attitude about a group or its individual members. Prejudices are usually aimed at the “other” and are often accompanied by ignorance, fear or hatred. Identities also shapes our prejudices. Prejudice can not be eliminated by law and policy
Discrimination Discrimination is behavior that treats people unequally because of their group memberships (i.e. race, ethnicity, faith, nationality etc.) Discriminatory behavior, ranging from slights to hate crimes, often begins with negative stereotypes and prejudices.
CREATING LABELS Labels take away a persons humanity and makes them an object that can more easily be discriminated against or even killed. Prostitute Backwards Terrorist Gook
Others Self Transformation SEEN BY ALL SEEN ONLY TO OTHERS HIDDEN TO ALL Me SEEN BY ME ONLY
Others Self Transformation SEEN ONLY TO OTHERS SEEN BY ALL HIDDEN TO ALL Me SEEN BY ME ONLY
RELIGION AND FAITH SYSTEMS OF WORSHIP: RITES, TRADITIONS CULT GOD SACRED SCRIPTURES AND/OR UNIVERSE DEFINE GOD RESPONSE TO GOD THROUGH LIFE LIVED CREED CULTURE FAITH
ASSUMPTION • An assumption is an idea we have about something that we think to be true even though we may not have sufficient evidence to prove that it is true. This assumption often determines how we act to situations or respond to people.
MOVING FROM TOLERANCE TO ACCEPTANCE TO ENGAGEMENT DISCUSSION OR DIALOGUE
Tolerance – • To bear something which is difficult or uncomfortable. (like a toothache or a very noise person) • To put up with someone who is disliked for their differences. • While people deemed undesirable may be disapproved of, "tolerance" would require that the party or group in question be left undisturbed, physically or otherwise, and that criticism directed toward them be free of inflammatory or harmful efforts.
TOLERANCE – GOOD? BAD? • Religious tolerance • Ethnic tolerance • Political tolerance
Tolerance doesn’t always last! • When the toothache seems unbearable, it will no longer be tolerated! • When we believe that we can no longer tolerate the “undesirable” person, we try to avoid them or fight them.
Acceptance - • To receive something even if one doesn’t like it. • Usually refers to the experience of a situation without an intention to change that situation. • Acceptance is often contrasted with resistance.
Engagement – • To meet together for the purpose of mutual benefit • It suggests a commitment to learning and living together, to listen deeply to each other.
TO LEARN WE MUST FIRST UNLEARN SO THAT WE CAN RELEARN • The person of knowledge tries to learn many things. The person of wisdom tries to unlearn many things.
DIALOGUE VERSUS DISCUSSION • “Through meaning” (slow) • To inquire and to learn • To seek shared meaning • To integrate multiple perspectives – not to win • To uncover and examine assumptions • Open-ended • Creates a community-based culture of cooperation and shared leadership (power with) • Leads to transformation of self • “Discus” – to throw, fragment, shatter (same roots as percussion and concussion) • To tell, sell, persuade • To gain agreement on one meaning • To evaluate and select the best – to win • To justify/defend assumptions • Seeks a solution • Tends to create division and centralized leadership (power over) • Little opportunity for transformation
CONFLICT When human beings have contact with each other, conflicts will occur. Conflict is normal. • Conflict can result in positive changes in personal relationships or community relationships. • When conflict is not dealt with in a positive way, it can become violence. • Opp0rtunity or conjuncture for positive change.
1. Conflict management • Relies on laws and rules • Conflict is controlled but may still remain • Might involve punishment • One party is right and one party is wrong • Requires continuous management • 2. Conflict resolution • Win-win solutions sought but someone still loses • Dignity may be lost because of compromise • Requires a mediator/expert • Conflict may emerge in the future and will again require mediation by an expert • Does not necessarily address the issue of injustice
3. Conflict transformation • Conflict is an opportunity for personal/social transformation • Seeking a true justice is central to this approach • Requires engagement and dialogue rather than tolerance and discussion • Moves toward creative use of conflict for personal/group transformation • Transformation means a long-term end to the conflict • No winner/loser situation • Requires deep listening • Transformation spreads to other areas of relationship
LAKOTA CONCEPT OF CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION RESTORING HARMONY IS CENTRAL TO THE LAKOTA CONCEPT OF CONFLICT TRANFORMATION
IMPORTANT • Every tool you need to do effective conflict transformation in your communities can be found in your own history, culture, traditions, experience and religious faith. • Outside models take power away from the oppressed.
Violence • IMPORTANT • There are many different possible responses to violence. • “I have no choice” means I do not want to take responsibility for what I do and so I stop thinking. • The result of our response will either confront and transform the violence or it will directly/indirectly support the violence.
GET RID OF THE OBSTACLES TO PEACE (INJUSTICE) • Remove the stones and trash (injustice) from the stream (justice) so that the water (peace) can flow freely to everyone equally. • The Prophet Amos said, “Let justice run down like water, And righteousness like a mighty stream.”
JUSTPEACE • Justice comes before peace. Without justice there can be no peace. • Justice is the foundation on which peace can rest and flourish.
NO JUSTICE • NO PEACE • KNOW JUSTICE • KNOW PEACE
Describe: What are the problems you see shown in this picture? What solutions do you recommend?
SYMPTOMS AND ROOTS • SYMPTOMATIC PROBLEMS • ROOT PROBLEMS
GIVE SOMEONE A FISH AND THEY WILL EAT FOR ONE DAY TEACH SOMEONE TO FISH AND THEY MAY EAT EVERY DAY HELPPEOPLE UNDERSTAND THE SYSTEMS THAT CONTROL FISHING AND THEY WILL MOVE TOWARD TRUE TRANSFORMATION!
CRITICAL THINKING • clarifies goals, • examines assumptions, • discerns hidden values, • evaluates evidence, • accomplishes actions, and • evaluates conclusions by: • Asking important and hard questions • Not accepting simple answers and solutions • Always wanting to know more • Thinking outside the box
AWARENESS • Critical thinking raises our awareness. • The more we know, the more important it is for us to act. • Action must focus on the root causes of the oppression. OR SILENCE IS NOT AN OPTION!
EMPATHY • WALK A MILE IN MY SHOES (Native American) • TAKE THEIR HEART AND PUT IT IN OUR HEART. (Thailand)
EMPATHY • “We are not victims! We are survivors!” Saw Mort • “We must see in the victims the power to nurture and to heal.” David Selvaraj • Tsunami survivor
NEUTRALITY? • If you are neutral in situations of injustice, you have chosen the side of the oppressor. If an elephant has its foot on the tail of a mouse and you say that you are neutral, the mouse will not appreciate your neutrality. Desmond Tutu