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# Hypothesis Testing

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1. Hypothesis Testing

2. Overview • This is the other part of inferential statistics, hypothesistesting • Hypothesis testing and estimation are two different approaches to two similar problems • Estimation is the process of using sample data to estimate the value of a population parameter • Hypothesis testing is the process of using sample data to test a claim about the value of a population parameter

3. What is Hypothesis Testing? • The environment of our problem is that we want to test whether a particular claim is believable, or not. • Hypothesis testing involves two steps • Step 1 – to state what we think is true • Step 2 – to quantify how confident we are in our claim

4. My Plan

5. An example of what we want to quantify • A car manufacturer claims that a certain model of car achieves 29 miles per gallon • We test some number of cars • We calculate the sample mean … it is 27 • Is 27 miles per gallon consistent with the manufacturer’s claim? How confident are we that the manufacturer has significantly overstated the miles per gallon achievable?

6. An example of what we want to quantify • How confident are we that the gas economy is definitely less than 29 miles per gallon? • We would like to make either a statement “We’re pretty sure that the mileage is less than 29 mpg” or “It’s believable that the mileage is equal to 29 mpg”

7. Definition • A hypothesistest for an unknown parameter is a test of a specific claim • Compare this to a confidence interval which gives an interval of numbers, not a “believe it” or “don’t believe it” answer • The levelofsignificance represents the confidence we have in our conclusion

8. Null Hypothesis • How do we state our claim? • Our claim • Is the statement to be tested • Is called the nullhypothesis • Is written as H0 (and is read as “H-naught”)

9. A Useful Analogy • In the judicial system, the defendant “is innocent until proven guilty” • Thus the defendant is presumed to be innocent • The null hypothesis is that the defendant is innocent • H0: the defendant is innocent

10. Alternative Hypothesis • How do we state our counter-claim? • Our counter-claim • Is the opposite of the statement to be tested • Is called the alternativehypothesis • Is written as H1 (and is read as “H-one”)

11. If the defendant is not innocent, then • The defendant is guilty • The alternative hypothesis is that the defendant is guilty • H1: the defendant is guilty • The summary of the set-up • H0: the defendant is innocent • H1: the defendant is guilty

12. There are different types of null hypothesis -alternative hypothesis pairs, depending on the claim and the counter-claim • One type of H0 / H1 pair, called a two-tailedtest, tests whether the parameter is either equal to, versus not equal to, some value • H0: parameter = some value • H1: parameter ≠ some value

13. An example of a two-tailed test • A bolt manufacturer claims that the diameter of the bolts average 10 mm • H0: Diameter = 10 • H1: Diameter ≠ 10 • An alternative hypothesis of “≠ 10” is appropriate since • A sample diameter that is too high is a problem • A sample diameter that is too low is also a problem • Thus this is a two-tailed test

14. Another type of pair, called a left-tailedtest, tests whether the parameter is either equal to, versus less than, some value • H0: parameter = some value • H1: parameter < some value

15. An example of a left-tailed test • A car manufacturer claims that the mpg of a certain model car is at least 29.0 • H0: MPG = 29.0 • H1: MPG < 29.0 • An alternative hypothesis of “< 29” is appropriate since • A mpg that is too low is a problem • A mpg that is too high is not a problem • Thus this is a left-tailed test

16. Another third type of pair, called a right-tailedtest, tests whether the parameter is either equal to, versus greater than, some value • H0: parameter = some value • H1: parameter > some value

17. An example of a right-tailed test • A bolt manufacturer claims that the defective rate of their product is at most 1 part in 1,000 • H0: Defect Rate = 0.001 • H1: Defect Rate > 0.001 • An alternative hypothesis of “> 0.001” is appropriate since • A defect rate that is too low is not a problem • A defect rate that is too high is a problem • Thus this is a right-tailed test

18. A comparison of the three types of tests • The null hypothesis • We believe that this is true • The alternative hypothesis

19. A manufacturer claims that there are at least two scoops of cranberries in each box of cereal • What would be a problem? • The parameter to be tested is the number of scoops of cranberries in each box of cereal • If the sample mean is too low, that is a problem • If the sample mean is too high, that is not a problem • This is a left-tailed test • The “bad case” is when there are too few

20. A manufacturer claims that there are exactly 500 mg of a medication in each tablet • What would be a problem? • The parameter to be tested is the amount of a medication in each tablet • If the sample mean is too low, that is a problem • If the sample mean is too high, that is a problem too • This is a two-tailed test • A “bad case” is when there are too few • A “bad case” is also where there are too many

21. A manufacturer claims that there are at most 8 grams of fat per serving • What would be a problem? • The parameter to be tested is the number of grams of fat in each serving • If the sample mean is too low, that is not a problem • If the sample mean is too high, that is a problem • This is a right-tailed test • The “bad case” is when there are too many

22. There are two possible results for a hypothesis test • If we believe that the null hypothesis could be true, this is called notrejectingthenullhypothesis • Note that this is only “we believe … could be” • If we are pretty sure that the null hypothesis is not true, so that the alternative hypothesis is true, this is called rejectingthenullhypothesis • Note that this is “we are pretty sure that … is”

23. In comparing our conclusion (not reject or reject the null hypothesis) with reality, we could either be right or we could be wrong • When we reject (and state that the null hypothesis is false) but the null hypothesis is actually true • When we not reject (and state that the null hypothesis could be true) but the null hypothesis is actually false • These would be undesirable errors

24. A summary of the errors is • We see that there are four possibilities … in two of which we are correct and in two of which we are incorrect

25. When we reject (and state that the null hypothesis is false) but the null hypothesis is actually true … this is called a TypeIerror • When we do not reject (and state that the null hypothesis could be true) but the null hypothesis is actually false … this called a TypeIIerror • In general, Type I errors are considered the more serious of the two

26. We can make use of our analogy for Type I and Type II errors in comparing it to a criminal trial • In the judicial system, the defendant “is innocent until proven guilty” • Thus the defendant is presumed to be innocent • The null hypothesis is that the defendant is innocent • H0: the defendant is innocent

27. If the defendant is not innocent, then • The defendant is guilty • The alternative hypothesis is that the defendant is guilty • H1: the defendant is guilty • The summary of the set-up • H0: the defendant is innocent • H1: the defendant is guilty

28. Our possible conclusions • Reject the null hypothesis • Go with the alternative hypothesis • H1: the defendant is guilty • We vote “guilty” • Do not reject the null hypothesis • Go with the null hypothesis • H0: the defendant is innocent • We vote “not guilty” (which is not the same as voting innocent!)

29. A Type I error • Reject the null hypothesis • The null hypothesis was actually true • We voted “guilty” for an innocent defendant • A Type II error • Do not reject the null hypothesis • The alternative hypothesis was actually true • We voted “not guilty” for a guilty defendant

30. Which error do we try to control? • Type I error (sending an innocent person to jail) • The evidence was “beyond reasonable doubt” • We must be pretty sure • Very bad! We want to minimize this type of error • A Type II error (letting a guilty person go) • The evidence wasn’t “beyond a reasonable doubt” • We weren’t sure enough • If this happens … well … it’s not as bad as a Type I error (according to the law system)

31. “Innocent” versus “Not Guilty” • This is an important concept • Innocent is not the same as not guilty • Innocent – the person did not commit the crime • Not guilty – there is not enough evidence to convict … that the reality is unclear • To not reject the null hypothesis – doesn’t mean that the null hypothesis is true – just that there isn’t enough evidence to reject

32. Summary so far… • A hypothesis test tests whether a claim is believable or not, compared to the alternative • We test the null hypothesis H0 versus the alternative hypothesis H1 • If there is sufficient evidence to conclude that H0 is false, we reject the null hypothesis • If there is insufficient evidence to conclude that H0 is false, we do not reject the null hypothesis

33. My Plan

34. We have the outline of a hypothesis test, just not the detailed implementation • What is the exact procedure to get to a do not reject / reject conclusion? • How do we calculate Type I and Type II errors?

35. Our aim is to conduct an hypothesis test about a population parameter. Like: • A car manufacturer claims that a certain model of car achieves 29 miles per gallon • We test some number of cars • We calculate the sample mean … it is 27 • Is 27 miles per gallon consistent with the manufacturer’s claim? How confident are we that the manufacturer has significantly overstated the miles per gallon achievable?

36. STEP 1 • We have a null hypothesis, that the actual mean is equal to a value μ0 • We have an alternative hypothesis • STEP 2 • A criterion that quantifies “unlikely” • That the actual mean is unlikely to be equal to μ0 • A criterion that determines what would be a do not reject and what would be a reject

37. STEP 3 • We run an experiment • We collect the data • We calculate the sample mean • MID-STEP : Our Assumptions • That the sample is a simple random sample • That the sample mean has a normal distribution

38. We compare the sample mean x to the hypothesized population mean μ0 • For two-tailed tests • α= 0.05 Shaded regions are called REJECTION REGION Critical Value (1.96)

39. The least likely 5% is the lowest 2.5% and highest 2.5% (below –1.96 and above +1.96 standard deviations) … –1.96 and +1.96 are the criticalvalues • The region outside this is the rejectionregion

40. For left-tailed tests • The least likely 5% is the lowest 5% (below –1.645 standard deviations) … –1.645 is the criticalvalue • The region less than this is the rejectionregion

41. For right-tailed tests • The least likely 5% is the highest 5% (above 1.645 standard deviations) … +1.645 is the criticalvalue • The region greater than this is the rejectionregion

42. The difference is • We standardize • This is called the teststatistic • If the test statistic is in the rejection region – we reject

43. An example of a two-tailed test • A bolt manufacturer claims that the diameter of the bolts average 10.0 mm • H0: Diameter = 10.0 • H1: Diameter ≠ 10.0 • We take a sample of size 40 • (Somehow) We know that the standard deviation of the population is 0.3 mm • The sample mean is 10.12 mm • We’ll use a level of significance α = 0.05

44. Do we reject the null hypothesis? • 10.12 is 0.12 higher than 10.0 • The standard error is (0.3 / √ 40) = 0.047 • The test statistic is 2.53 • The critical normal value, for α/2 = 0.025, is 1.96 • 2.53 is more than 1.96 • Our conclusion • We reject the null hypothesis • We have sufficient evidence that the population mean diameter is not 10.0

45. An example of a left-tailed test • A car manufacturer claims that the mpg of a certain model car is at least 29.0 • H0: MPG = 29.0 • H1: MPG < 29.0 • We take a sample of size 40 • (Somehow) We know that the standard deviation of the population is 0.5 • The sample mean mpg is 28.89 • We’ll use a level of significance α = 0.05

46. Do we reject the null hypothesis? • 28.89 is 0.11 lower than 29.0 • The standard error is (0.5 / √ 40) = 0.079 • The test statistic is -1.39 • -1.39 is greater than -1.645, the left-tailed critical value for α = 0.05 • Our conclusion • We do not reject the null hypothesis • We have insufficient evidence that the population mean mpg is less than 29.0

47. An example of a right-tailed test • A bolt manufacturer claims that the defective rate of their product is at most 1.70 per 1,000 • H0: Defect Rate = 1.70 • H1: Defect Rate > 1.70 • We take a sample of size 40 • (Somehow) We know that the standard deviation of the population is .06 • The sample defect rate is 1.78 • We’ll use a level of significance α = 0.05

48. Do we reject the null hypothesis? • 1.78 is 0.08 higher than 1.70 • The standard error is (0.06 / √ 40) = 0.009 • The test statistic is 8.43 • 8.43 is more than 1.645, the right-tailed critical value for α = 0.05 • Our conclusion • We reject the null hypothesis • We have sufficient evidence that the population mean rate is more than 1.70

49. Two-tailed test • The critical values are zα/2 and –zα/2 • The rejection region is {less than –zα/2} and {greater than z1-α/2} • Left-tailed test • The critical value is –zα • The rejection region is {less than –zα} • Right-tailed test • The critical value is zα • The rejection region is {greater than zα}

50. The difference is • We standardize • This is called the teststatistic • If the test statistic is in the rejection region – we reject