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AV Translation • 1. Film translation : from talkies (1930s) onward • - dubbing/synchronization (Chaume/Spain; Gambier/Finland) • - subtitling (Diaz-Cintas/UK) • - oral translation/ Japan (1940s/50s: Nornes/USA) and Soviet Union/East Bloc • 2. Documentaries , TV, Interviews, Cartoons: • - voice-over (York/Canada) • 3. Accessibility: Blind and Hard-of-hearing • - audiodescription (Benecke/Germany) • - close captioning Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Work pending… • - Company videos: International firms such as McDonald’s, IBM, Siemens • - Promotional Videos: • - Music Videos: • - Fansubbing: • - Health Communications: Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Studying ‘international’ PSAs • Public Service Announcements: • - on health issues – cancer risks, SARS, West Nile virus • - behavioural issues – smoking, drinking and driving, compulsive gambling, unprotected sex • - issued by governments, or • - NGOs and other private sector interests • History: • - first used as war propaganda in WWII • - also by certain religious groups over 20th C USA • Purpose: • - to raise public awareness • - change people`s attitudes and behaviour Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
PSAs in the media • Close ties to the media – often radio and television – but also public information noticeboards, screens at bus stops, tram stops, in public transport stations; • - the media disseminates (not without risk), • - thereby also fulfilling requirements for “broadcasting in the public interest”, i.e. Canadian Broadcasting Act: Para 3. states: • the programming provided by the Canadian broadcasting system should […] • (iii) include educational and community programs […] Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
PSAs as Health and Risk Communication • PSAs are part of larger ”Health and Risk Communication” • Communications approaches: • - identifying the issues • - planning how to deal with them • - taking action • - monitoring results • - managing external (often media) relations. • Most important: defining the audience and communicating WITH rather than AT them. (Bennett et al., 1999) Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Challenges/Solutions • - often a paternalistic tone where those who ‘know’ disseminate the right message for the masses; • - masses regarded as ‘ apathetic or ignorant, resistant to change, “hard to reach” (Camacho, et al. 2005). • - Such attitudes/perceptions reproduce and reinforce social inequities… • - Can be mitigated through ‘communities direct involvement in mutual exchange of information” (Camacho et al. 2005) – i.e. local focus (localization?), collaborative community efforts, etc. Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Communicating WITH people and not AT them • reach people on an emotional level as well as a rational level • relate to people’s social or ‘life’ contexts • tailor communications for effective, specific messages rather than generic messages (Diane Berry, 2004, 74) Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
The Three Amigos as Health Communication • - the issue: promote condom use worldwide to curtail the spread of HIV AIDS; i.e. raise awareness, change attitudes and behaviours in an area that “has been plagued by silence … and is a huge communication problem” (Kharas 2007) • - the plan: create and disseminate a series of 15, 30 or 60 second spots, using animation and humour – for broadcast on TV, in schools, public transport, hospitals, barracks, etc. • - the action: joint project between an international team: South African designer, a Canadian producer and Indian animators; and hundreds of amateur translators and voice-over speakers in Ottawa. Massive distribution from December 1, 2003. Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
The Three Amigos • - the audience: 15-24 year-olds (worldwide), some of the most endangered in regard to HIV Aids infection; • - communication strategy : to communicate WITH young people on very touchy, culturally complicated, and deadly topic: • Animation • Humour • Repetition • Translation (for worldwide distribution) • See CD Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Humour in Three Amigos • - sexual allusions and innuendo • - wordplay that references local slang and implies complicity • - situational humour: involves wordplay and innuendo • - self-deprecation: carried by language, comments, remarks, etc. • - gender???? Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Theoretical Bases • Recap: to help the world’s disenfranchized, to address a major health crisis: • - use children’s animation • - thereby escape real-life images • - and real censorship • - cartoons are more universal • - these messages can travel • Use abstractions to address the ‘universal,’ the ‘non-national,’ and simply adapt linguistically to specific locales. Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Questions: • Are standardized images as strong as the details of language??? • Check the translations: • 1. Three Amigos: German/other • 2. Buzz and Bite: English – and others? (cf. 15 dialects from Mozambique) • 3. No Excuses: English – and others? • http://www.noexcusescampaign.org/ • 4. Other ‘public health’ text: Our Bodies, Ourselves Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Three Amigos: Translating Humour and Wordplay • Anyone can get burnt. • Jeder kann sich verbrennen; Tout le monde peut se faire brûler. • Better keep on trucking. Don`t get too friendly with the locals. • Lass uns weiterfahren. Il vaut mieux continuer la route. • No condom. No blast off. Untranslated in German and French. • You just can`t score without a condom. • Kein Kondom, kein Treffer; Sans capote vous ne pouvez pas marquer le but. Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Humour 2 • Dynamite comes in small packages. Don`t play with fire. • Je kleinerdestogemeiner; Le bon vin vientdans les petites bouteilles • It`s a jungle out there. • Da draussenisteswieimDschungel. C’est la jungle. • Get lucky. Watch me blow. Don`t blow it. Untranslated in German and French. • Aren`t we supposed to rise to the occasion? I can`t get it up! Untranslated in German and French. Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
Translation Problems: Three Amigos • - often wan, un-energetic text • - humourless, dry language • - very little wordplay retained. • - 3/8 not-translated at all. • WHY? • - lack of funding (promoting abstinence over technical prevention) – no one source text/culture promotion; • - translators are amateurs and volunteers; • - sexual terms, topics, innuendo; • - wordplay! Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer
No Excuses: to prevent domestic violence • Another type of discourse: • Black humour; • Focus on situations, not linguistic finesse; • Different, but clearly trans-national, audience? • Again: universal, trans-national communication where the source text is tailored (?) for translation, with translation in mind. Click View then Header and Footer to change this footer