MATERI IX. KEWIRAUSAHAAN. PRODUKSI & OPERASIONAL. 5 ISSUES That arise when trying to produce a product or service. Capacity (How much can I produce?) Scheduling (How am I going to do it?) Inventory (How much the efficient inventory is there?) Standards
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(How much can I produce?)
(How am I going to do it?)
(How much the efficient inventory is there?)
(Efficient production and quality output?)
(Is the production process working?)
- Have you chosen the best method of accomplishing the operational
- Are the machines placed in the most efficient factory floor
- Are the materials you need available and of good quality?
- Do you have capability to purchase efficiently, store, and distribute
the material when needed by the production process?
- Do you have well-trained and productive workers and managers to
accomplish your productions goals?
- Are your worker sufficiently trained to operate any new technology
that you may acquire?
- Do you have the right tool for the job?
- Do your machines meet your need; capability, speed, reliability,
- Is the cash to fund production available as needed?
- Is the investment in factories, equipment and inventories justified
in light of the entire organization’s opportunities?
- Does the project cash flow justify the investment? (a finance
- Do you have a system for sharing accurate and timely information
among all members of the production team – people and
- A machine needs to electronically share information about output
and quality on assembly line with its operator, as well as with
Arrange each task or activity in sequential order and estimate the time needed to complete each one.
Each time a task begins or is completed it is called an event.
A = 2 wks
C = 3 wks
B = 4 wks
D = 1 wk
E = 1 wk
The Balancing Act. The optimal inventory level is a delicate balancing act.
Inventory decisions are tough because different departments of the same company have different goals.
Value added by labor & overhead while in progress
(inventory on hand to minimize production delay and maximize efficiency)
(suppliers have minimum order that are greater than immediate need)
(stocks held to avoid shortage because of uncertain production demands. Stockout cost money when production is halted)
(Inventory held in anticipation of known demand)
(items purchased to beat supplier price increases)
2 costs associated with inventory
(The costs associated with storage, insurance, and financing of inventory)
(the cost of ordering that include all accounting and clerical labor and materials associated with placing and order)
(Item + Holding + Ordering
O = Cost of placing and order
C = Cost of carrying a unit of inventory per
(2 x R x O)
CEconomic Order Quantity (EOQ)
Sales history indicates that a level demand of 2,000 unit throughout the year. Each time order it cost $14 to process the order. A detail study of costs reveals that it cost $.50 to carry each unit in inventory for a year.
The formula calculates the most economic inventory order as 335 unit. Since the demand 2,000 unit, this means that there will be about 6 orders per year (2000/355).
2 x 2000 x $14
= 335 units