intervenyion for clients with noninfectious problems of upper and lower respiratory tract n.
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INTERVENYION FOR CLIENTS WITH NONINFECTIOUS PROBLEMS OF UPPER AND LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT. Fracture of the Nose. Displacement of either the bone or cartilage of the nose can cause airway obstruction or cosmetic deformity and is a potential source of infection.

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fracture of the nose
Fracture of the Nose
  • Displacement of either the bone or cartilage of the nose can cause airway obstruction or cosmetic deformity and is a potential source of infection.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid could indicate skull fracture.
  • Interventions:
    • Rhinoplasty
    • Nasoseptoplasty
epistaxis
Epistaxis
  • Nosebleed is a common problem.
  • Interventions if nosebleed does not respond to emergency care:
    • Affected capillaries are cauterized with silver nitrate or electrocautery and the nose is packed.
    • Posterior nasal bleeding is an emergency.

(Continued)

nasal polyps
Nasal Polyps
  • Benign, grapelike clusters of mucous membranes and connective tissue
  • May obstruct nasal breathing, change character of nasal discharge, and change speech quality
  • Surgery: treatment of choice
cancer of the nose and sinuses
Cancer of the Nose and Sinuses
  • Cancer of the nose and sinuses is rare and can be benign or malignant.
  • Onset is slow and manifestations resemble sinusitis.
  • Local lymph enlargement often occurs on the side with tumor mass.
  • Radiation therapy is the main treatment; surgery is also used.
facial trauma
Facial Trauma
  • Le Fort I nasoethmoid complex fracture
  • Le Fort II maxillary and nasoethmoid complex fracture
  • Le Fort III combination of I and II plus an orbital-zygoma fracture, often called craniofacial disjunction
  • First assessment: airway
facial trauma interventions
Facial Trauma Interventions
  • Anticipate the need for emergency intubation, tracheotomy, and cricothyroidotomy.
  • Control hemorrhage.
  • Assess for extent of injury.
  • Treat shock.
  • Stabilize the fracture segment.
disorders of the larynx
Disorders of the Larynx
  • Vocal cord paralysis
  • Vocal cord nodules and polyps
  • Laryngeal trauma
upper airway obstruction
Upper Airway Obstruction
  • Life-threatening emergency in which an interruption in airflow through the nose, mouth, pharynx, or larynx occurs.
  • Early recognition is essential to prevent further complications, including respiratory arrest.
upper airway obstruction inverventions
Upper Airway Obstruction Inverventions
  • Interventions include:
    • Assessment for cause of the obstruction
    • Maintenance of patent airway and ventilation
      • Cricothyroidotomy
      • Endotracheal intubation
      • Tracheostomy
ineffective breathing pattern
Ineffective Breathing Pattern
  • Interventions include:
    • Treatment goal: to remove or eradicate the cancer while preserving as much normal function as possible
    • Nonsurgical management
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
risk for aspiration
Risk for Aspiration
  • Interventions include:
    • Dynamic swallow study
    • Enteral feedings
    • Routine reflux precautions
      • Elevation of the head of bed
      • Strict adherence to tube feeding regimen
      • No bolus feeding at night
      • Checking residual feeding
anxiety interventions
Anxiety Interventions
  • Interventions include:
    • Team conference
    • Explore reason for anxiety
    • Teaching
    • Antianxiety drugs such as diazepam administered with caution because of the possibility of respiratory depression
    • Lorazepam
asthma
Asthma
  • Intermittent and reversible airflow obstruction affects only the airways, not the alveoli.
  • Airway obstruction occurs due to inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.
interventions
Interventions
  • Client education: asthma is often an intermittent disease; with guided self-care, clients can co-manage this disease, increasing symptom-free periods and decreasing the number and severity of attacks.
  • Peak flow meter can be used twice daily by client.
  • Drug therapy plan is specific.