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FlightPlan Research Phase 2 Summary Results. Jim McGee Global Mapping International IAMA Conference May 2006. Background. Global Mapping International Part of and committed to the mission community Unaffiliated with the mission aviation community Focus and commitment to research

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Flightplan research phase 2 summary results

FlightPlan ResearchPhase 2 Summary Results

Jim McGee

Global Mapping International

IAMA Conference

May 2006


  • Global Mapping International

    • Part of and committed to the mission community

    • Unaffiliated with the mission aviation community

    • Focus and commitment to research

      GMI’s Mission:

      Produce and present world-class research that fuels emerging mission movements and leaders.

Key elements of the project
Key Elements of the Project

  • Collaboration and involvement sought from all stakeholders

  • A visible, open process

  • Compilation of valuable information for distribution throughout the mission aviation community

  • Funding provided from several sources

  • Third-party analysis and reporting


  • Phase 1: Document the status, dynamics and trends

  • Phase 2: Explore perceptions, needs, challenges, opportunities

  • Phase 3: Envision and analyze possible & preferable futures

Phase 1 cd contents
Phase 1 CD Contents

  • Research Report: Status of Mission Aviation

    • History

    • Global Trends

    • Missiology

    • Finance

    • Training

    • Technology

    • Strategy/Practice

Phase 1 cd contents1
Phase 1 CD Contents

  • Directory of mission aviation service providers

  • Web directory of mission aviation web sites

  • Library of 300 mission aviation documents

  • Key documents

    • Dave Bochman

    • Ed Robinson

    • Scott Zibell

  • Key measures

Sample of phase 1 info
Sample of Phase 1 Info

  • National and global trends

  • Number of student pilots has dropped 41% in past 20 years

Sample of phase 1 info2
Sample of Phase 1 Info

  • Technical m.a. staff is up by 44% since 1988

  • Flight hours are roughly unchanged

  • (Chart does not show all known orgs)

More phase 1 learning plus
More Phase 1 Learning (plus)

  • Roadless population growing: 1 billion by 2030

  • Among poorest peoples, mobility not expected to increase substantially

  • Building roads often doesn’t give poorest access to services they need

  • Economic-valuation models say the value of time saved is multiplied by a factor of (significant given rapid population increase)

More phase 1 learning plus1
More Phase 1 Learning (plus)

  • Fuel savings from diesel/autofuel aircraft expected to recoup cost in 4 years of service

  • Staff attrition at MAF (6.5% annually) is similar to that of all U.S.-based missions (6.0%)

  • Projected supply of pilot trainees runs fairly close to expressed agency need (but do they reach the field?)

  • Projected supply of maintenance specialists runs somewhat short


  • Objectives: Gather internal (stakeholder) and external perspectives

  • Internal: Interview leaders/representatives within stakeholder groups to explore key issues, questions

    • Depth interviews

    • Online focus groups

  • External: Survey current and potential users of mission aviation to explore needs, perceptions

Depth interviews
Depth Interviews

  • 40 depth interviews (phone, email)

    • 15 service providers (10 agencies; senior leaders, field leaders, pilots, recruiters)

    • 8 trainers/equippers (5 schools, 3 bridge programs)

    • 6 support specialists (4 agencies)

    • 5 donors

    • 4 service users (representing Guatemala, Ecuador, Cameroon, South Africa, China and PNG)

    • 2 current/former students

Online discussions
Online Discussions

  • Discussion Boards

    • 75 mission-aviation stakeholders

    • Topical: focusing on questions outlined in Phase 1

    • Situational: getting reactions to ideas that could have application for mission aviation, e.g….

      • …corporate-NGO partnership for global logistics

      • …federal giving initiative to give $200 million to faith-based organizations working in AIDS-ravaged countries

      • ...Islamic competition in community air service

      • …small-scale tribal tourism operations

      • …2-year field internship for prospective missionaries


  • In relative frequency of mention

    • Cooperate with other agencies

    • Be a missionary first, a pilot second

    • Empower indigenous peoples by increasing their access to health/education services

    • Partner closely with national believers/churches

    • Leave when appropriate; establish exit parameters

    • Select appropriate technology for situation

    • Emphasize safety and safety standards

    • Seek sustainability, financially and otherwise


  • Focus on learning/research/using information

  • Define and measure effectiveness

  • Speed the path to the field; show agility on the field

  • Consider God-honoring business applications

  • Smaller aircraft have a place

  • Internships must meet objectives (not just exposure)

  • Users pay portion of costs

  • Variety in the enterprise is good


  • In relative frequency of mention

    • Cost of aviation for nationals (and expats)

    • Government resistance/regulation

    • Rising operational costs (and currency devaluation)

    • Students failing to get to field due to cost, debt and distractions

    • Supply of students

    • Insurance costs


  • Service providers staying too long

  • Changing technology (training, certification)

  • Declining funding sources/trends

  • Avgas supply

  • Agencies less likely to place missionaries in isolated locations


  • In relative frequency of mention

    • Internship opportunities for trainees

    • Low-tech/simple tech (Steve Saint)

    • Mission-Business ventures and models

    • Partnership/consultation with governments on infrastructure

    • Cargo capacity – more stuff, fewer trips (Kodiak)

    • Second-career people/volunteers

    • Secular schools supplying students


  • Humanitarian opportunities in closed places

  • Airstrip construction in areas where governments are committed to providing services

  • Pilots returning from the field (training, promoting)

  • Tentmaking opportunities for trainees

  • Need of nationals to learn English

  • Use of commercial pilots for short-term needs

  • Navigation technology

  • Community air service


  • Group insurance

  • Microaviation – small-scale do-it-alls

  • FBOs lying dormant

  • Running national training institutions


  • Relative frequency of mention

    • Intentionally reduce dependence on expats

    • Speed the transition to new aircraft

    • Recruit more people

    • Help trainees get field ready (skill & finances)

    • Measure opportunity/effectiveness

    • Evaluate viability of new tech applications

    • Market the benefits to users, churches


  • Intentionally seek national administrators (not just technicians)

  • Adopt standards across organizations as appropriate (unity without uniformity)

  • Understand total cost/investment

  • Train pilots and trainees on diesel/turbine

  • Communicate better across agencies

  • Recruit people with business acumen

Internet survey of potential users
Internet Survey of Potential Users

  • Internet survey of field leaders whose agencies work among remote peoples

  • Offline version made available

  • Languages: English, Spanish, Portuguese

  • Recruiting sources emphasized global South

    • WEA Mission Commission Associates (global)

    • Ethne 2006 email list (primarily Asia)

    • Comibam email list (Latin America)

    • MANI network regional leaders

Internet survey of potential users1
Internet Survey of Potential Users

  • Survey billed as “Remote Peoples and Mission Transportation Survey” to avoid potential response bias

  • 40+ data points, including attitude/behavior ratings, 2 open-ended questions, demographics

  • Respondents asked to identify themselves by name and mission organization

  • 119 valid responses from approximately 800 invitations (approx. 15% response)

Involvement with remote peoples
Involvement with Remote Peoples

  • Respondents asked about relationship with remote peoples

  • Those not directly engaged with remote peoples were filtered out, as were aviation service providers

  • Reporting based on 82 responses


  • 83% of responses from people living in the majority world

  • Half of respondents live in Latin America

  • For most measures, no bias based on region of residence


  • Most respondents represent missions active in multiple regions


  • Mix of national-oriented and expat-oriented missions

  • Relatively few missions have a balance of missionaries from both types of countries


  • More than half of respondents from smaller missions;

  • Nearly 4 in 10 from missions with more than 100 field staff

Attitudes challenges in ministry
Attitudes: Challenges in Ministry

  • Top challenges:

    • Access

    • Health/Security Concerns

Attitudes use of big grant
Attitudes: Use of Big Grant

  • Aviation is complex, so no surprise to see it low on priority list

  • Other responses related to aviation:

    • Telecommunications

    • Transport Services

Attitudes transport problems
Attitudes: Transport Problems

  • Expense is top problem; a challenge for aviation

  • Cargo transport is an opportunity for aviation

  • Also, to a lesser degree, speed, safety & reliability

Behaviors travel modes
Behaviors: Travel Modes

  • Air travel used moderately, as is boat and foot travel

  • Boat use much higher in Latin America than Africa or Asia

Behaviors aviation usage
Behaviors: Aviation Usage

  • Second half of survey specific to aviation

  • Mission aviation not seen as available in many areas

    • Unavailable?

    • Unaware?

  • 1 in 4 missions note use of aviation at some level

Attitudes barriers to aviation use
Attitudes: Barriers to Aviation Use

  • Confirms cost issue and perception of unavailability

  • Few have problem with use of planes generally

Anticipated behavior if given aircraft
Anticipated Behavior: If Given Aircraft

  • 2 of 3 missions would keep a plane if given one

  • Only 1 in 8 would sell it outright rather than work to keep it in mission service

Attitudes mission aviation
Attitudes: Mission Aviation

  • In general, strong support for use of aviation in mission

Analysis ideas1
Analysis / Ideas

  • Marketing/Communications

    • Movement from reactive to proactive, especially among agencies that have few North Americans

    • Awareness: Potential users should be aware of the opportunities to use mission aviation service

    • Benefits of mission aviation should be more intentionally communicated to potential users (transportation consulting)

    • Grants for marketing could be tied to follow-up funding based on increases in requests for service

Analysis ideas2
Analysis / Ideas

  • Failure to Get to the Field

    • With partner approach (schools/bridge/agency), no one accompanies student through the whole process

    • Students aren’t sure what they want to do; they need an advocate/counselor

    • Potential role for IAMA or others: membership-based career service for Christian aviation students

    • Could include internship clearinghouse

    • Should include commercial options, especially given expanding nature of “mission”

Analysis ideas3
Analysis / Ideas

  • Failure to Remain on the Field

    • Missionaries less likely to stay for a full career;especially an issue for aviation due to initial cost

    • Lots of roles at home for former field staff, but…

    • …they can’t be publicized, because the staff are so needed on the field

    • Require a portion of support placed in a deferred fund, with substantial bonuses for extended service

    • Allow home assignments to be made public and given honor

Analysis ideas4
Analysis / Ideas

  • The Struggle to Integrate Nationals

    • Agencies committed to development of national leaders, but training is a challenge & funding difficult

    • Meanwhile, agencies note that most people give to individual aviators, not agencies

    • Consider expat-national counterpart program

      • Expat raises support for self and for counterpart

      • Churches more likely to provide support w/link to national

Analysis ideas5
Analysis / Ideas

  • What to Do With Second-Career Pilots?

    • Do something!

    • Research shows that pilots over 60 are no more of a risk than those under 35 (though they may not be able to fly into 15o-slope jungle strips)

    • Increasing opportunities for short-term or contract relief work, international flight training, mentoring

    • As likely to get a decade or more of service from them as from many younger pilots


  • Identify and prioritize evaluation criteria

  • Identify and describe models/scenarios

  • Evaluate scenarios

    • Underlying assumptions

    • Anticipated/required conditions

    • Preferability based on criteria

Evaluation criteria
Evaluation Criteria

  • Initial set of criteria, based on Phase 2 input:

    • Consistency with agency’s mission, vision, calling

    • Effective use of technology and information

    • Effective use of staff gifts and talents

    • Effective partnership with national churches

    • Effective cooperation/unity with other agencies and senders

    • Ability to reach/impact many people

    • Ability to impact areas traditionally closed to Christian work

    • Ability to address needs that cannot be met otherwise

    • Long-term viability of strategy

    • Ability to mobilize human and financial resources

  • How would you or your agency prioritize these?

  • What additional criteria would you add?

Potential models scenarios
Potential Models/Scenarios

  • The following slides outline a series of potential models/scenarios for the future of mission aviation

  • Most of these have been inspired by suggestions from mission-aviation stakeholders

  • Other models/scenarios may be added; suggestions are welcomed

Agile provider
Agile Provider

  • Summary: Servant of All, using efficiencies of scale to conduct a wide variety of aviation services, rapidly deploying and redeploying to maximize existing and emerging opportunities in a dynamic environment

  • Core Activities

    • Monitoring/evaluating opportunities

    • Logistics – managing resources for efficiency & effectiveness

    • Funding likely to come from many sources

    • Partnership with ministry and secular entities

Agile provider1
Agile Provider

  • Extension/Partnership ActivitiesAbility to establish alternative/subsidiary corporate structures, as needed

    • Coordination with alternative travel modes

    • Coordination with rural-development initiatives

  • Credit: Dave Bochman, MAF

Vertically integrated agency
Vertically Integrated Agency

  • Summary: Servant of the Sending Church, providing an efficient, integrated path for missionaries focused on learning and serving within a particular context.

  • Core Activities

    • Recruiting/Training/Certifying/Deploying

    • Internship Programs

    • Scholarship/Debt Management

    • FBO Management

Vertically integrated agency1
Vertically Integrated Agency

  • Extension/Partnership Activities

    • Partnership with Local Churches (short-term transport, interships, etc.)

    • FBO investment-opportunity evaluation

    • Consultant to other agencies

  • Credit: Don Starlin, Adventist World Aviation

Tribal mobility advocate
Tribal Mobility Advocate

  • Summary: Servant to Indigenous Peoples, assisting in implementation of aviation and other mobility efforts at the initiative of local leadership using appropriate technologies

  • Core Activities

    • Evaluating/monitoring tribal mobility needs and interests

    • Connecting needs with appropriate technology

    • Identifying creative, appropriate financing

    • Training

    • Monitoring & Evaluating Effectiveness

    • Developing Models

Tribal mobility advocate1
Tribal Mobility Advocate

  • Extension/Partnership Activities

    • Public Advocacy/Awareness

    • Micro-enterprise Development

    • Identifying/Opening Markets for Tribal Produce/Goods

  • Credit: Steve Saint, I-TEC

  • Secular parallel: Survival International

Airdrop airlink services
Airdrop/Airlink Services

  • Summary: Air-based Servant of Isolated Rural Peoples, focusing on providing broad access to services with limited ground-based infrastructure

  • Core Activities

    • Identifying and communicating opportunities/needs 

    • Manned and unmanned air drop of community development resources (health, education)

    • Air-based communication network

    • Collaborating with national/international entities

Airdrop airlink services1
Airdrop/Airlink Services

  • Extension/Partnership Activities

    • Literacy training

    • Medical missions

    • Microenterprise development (UAV delivery service)

    • Telecommunications partnerships

    • Christian broadcast/content providers

  • Credit: Robert Nicholls, Airdrop

Volunteer driven cost leader
Volunteer-driven Cost Leader

  • Summary: Servant to National Church Initiatives by providing restored aircraft and human resources, relying primarily on volunteer and contract labor

  • Core Activities:

    • Evaluating national needs and initiatives

    • Acquiring/restoring aircraft

    • Recruiting experienced volunteer and short-term laborers

Volunteer driven cost leader1
Volunteer-driven Cost Leader

  • Extension/Partnership Activities:

    • Remote maintenance

    • Short-term trips

    • Partnership with corporate goodwill programs of aviation suppliers

  • Credit: Doug Clements, Wings of Hope

Infrastructure specialist
Infrastructure Specialist

  • Summary: Servant to community development, sacrificing overt ministry opportunities to be an effective partner with national governments and the international development community.

  • Core Activities

    • Providing Community Air Service

    • Providing Consulting Services (to help establish standards & regulation, criteria for service/evaluation)

    • Providing Education (training, value of air travel)

    • Collaborating with National/International Entities

Infrastructure specialist1
Infrastructure Specialist

  • Extension/Partnership Activities

    • Community Health

    • Hospitality Development

    • Tourism Development

    • Medical Services Development

    • Transportation Systems Integration

  • Credit: Jon Lewis, Partners International

Provider cooperative
Provider Cooperative

  • Summary: Servant of Service Providers, enabling small and not-so-small operators to gain the advantages of standardization, collective bargaining, shared communication, etc.

  • Core Activities:

    • Developing cooperative membership (recruiting, serving, informing)

    • Developing standards and cooperative initiatives

    • Negotiating with suppliers

    • Coordinating grant-seeking efforts (shared and independent)

    • Monitoring activities to limit duplication of effort

Provider cooperative1
Provider Cooperative

  • Extension/Partnership Activities:

    • Partnering with training institutes to develop aviator-development efficiencies

    • Potential partnership with a commercial counterpart

  • Credit: Jon Egeler, MSI & John Armstrong, IAMANon-aviation Parallel: Parable Christian Stores

Pioneer specialist
Pioneer Specialist

  • Summary: Servant of Pioneer Missions, opening access to locations where ministry is not yet occurring

  • Core Activities:

    • Surveying Needs/Opportunities/Sustainability

    • Assisting in developing initial relationships in coordination with pioneer mission agencies

    • Helipad/Airstrip Construction

    • Efficient Entry/Exit Strategies

    • Multi-modal transportation logistics

Pioneer specialist1
Pioneer Specialist

  • Extension/Partnership Activities:

    • Network of aviation partners to sustain service

    • Disaster Assistance (access reconstruction)

  • Inspirations: Helimission, JAARS

Global training specialist
Global Training Specialist

  • Summary: Servant of Students, providing varied, extensive training on a globally distributed basis

  • Core Activities:

    • Establishing Distributed Training Centers (or network of training-center partners)

    • Recruiting/Qualifying Students

    • Monitoring Mission Aviator Demand/Supply

    • Developing Incentives for Mission Service

Global training specialist1
Global Training Specialist

  • Extension/Partnership Activities:

    • Aviator Student Fellowships

    • ESL Language Training

    • Cultural-exchange Programs

    • Strategic Relationships with Commercial Airlines

    • Business-development

Jim mcgee global mapping international jim@gmi org

Jim McGee

Global Mapping International

[email protected]