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Chapter 13. Uranus & Neptune. Survey of Astronomy. Astro1010-lee.com. twlee2016@gmail.com. Chapter 13. Uranus was Discovered in 1781 by William Herschel; first planet to be discovered in recorded history. Survey of Astronomy. Astro1010-lee.com.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Chapter 13

  • Uranus & Neptune

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide2

Chapter 13

Uranus was Discovered in 1781 by William Herschel; first planet to be discovered in recorded history.

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

Little detail can be seen from Earth; arrows point to three of Uranus’s moons.

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide3

Chapter 13

  • William Herschel
    • Born in Germany he Anglicized his name when he came to England with the Hanover Kings. He was a musician from a musical family.
    • As an amateur Astronomer he looked at the sky with telescopes he built himself. Among other things in the sky he found what he thought was a comet. After further study he realized he had found a planet, the first in recorded history. Because of the fame of that discovery he became the Court Astronomer to King George III

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide4

Chapter 13

Most of the planets have their axes slightly tipped with respect to the plane of their orbits. Uranus is unusual in that it is tipped more than 90 degrees. As a result the rotation of the planet is retrograde.

Survey of Astronomy

Here we see Earth tipped 23.5 degrees and Uranus is tipped 98 degrees

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide5

Chapter 13

During the Voyager encounter in l985 we only saw a featureless face as the Sun shone on the pole of the planet.

Several years later When the HST looked at it we could see stripes and storms.

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide6

Chapter 13

As the Uranus axis of rotation lies almost in the plane of its orbit , the seasonal variations are extreme

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide7

Chapter 13

Rings around Uranus were discovered from Earth and we saw 3 narrow rings and 2 broad rings. The Voyager saw a system of hundreds of ringlets.

The streaks are stars seen through the Uranus broad but thin ring system

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide8

Chapter 13

The moon Miranda has large chunks of rock and large fields of ice. It looks like it has been shattered in the near past and is now pulling itself back together. All of the parts have not yet found their final places.

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide9

Chapter 13

The Titus-Bode Rule is a handy approximation to Keller's 3rd law to demonstrate the distances of the planets from the Sun. It has no scientific significance.

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide10

Chapter 13

Neptune was discovered 1846, after analysis of Uranus’s orbit indicated its presence. Any new planet could not fit the Titus Bode Rule, hence the

English and French Astronomical Societies ruled out another Planet. However, an Englishman, Adams , and a Frenchman, Le Verrier , gave their calculations to a German, John Gottfried Galle, who found Neptune immediately

Details of Neptune cannot be made out from Earth. The arrows point to the moons Triton and Nerid

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide11

Chapter 13

Voyager found a Great

Dark Spot. It was deter-

mined to be a large storm. There were other smaller storms.

Of special interest were the fast moving white clouds, demonstrating that the winds were the fastest in the Solar System.

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide12

Chapter 13

The rings of Neptune were discovered from the Earth but they looked like arcs. Voyager found complete rings but some of them were ’lumpy’.

Neptune has five rings,

three narrow and two broad.

Our ring theories have been

badly stretched by these

rings. Rings do NOT seem to

obey any rules.

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide13

Chapter 13

Two moons, Triton and Nerid, were discovered from the Earth. Eleven more were found by Voyager.

The moon of most interest is Triton. Triton is unique in many ways. It’s temperature is the lowest of any body in the Solar System that we have visited, 32 deg. K. It has an atmosphere, high winds, active geysers and evidence of plate tectonics, frozen lakes and water volcanoes.

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide14

Chapter 13

Triton revolves around Neptune retrograde and it rotates on its axis retrograde.

The tidal forces and

the retrograde

motion will one

day cause Triton to

crash into the planet.

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide15

Chapter 13

Nitrogen geysers have been observed on Triton, contributing to the surface features

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

Also, there appear to be frozen water lakes and ice volcanoes on Triton

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide16

Chapter 13

Uranus and Neptune are very similar.

UranusNeptune

Mass 14.5 × E 17.1 × E

Radius 4.0 × E 3.9 × E

Density 1.3 x H2O 1.6 x H2O

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide17

Chapter 13

  • Uranus and Neptune both have substantial magnetic fields, but at a large angle to their rotation axes.

The rectangle within each planet shows a bar magnet that would produce a similar field. Note that both Uranus’s and Neptune’s are significantly off center.

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide18

Chapter 13

Magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune must not be produced by dynamos, as the other planets’ fields seem to be.

Interior structure of Uranus and Neptune, compared to that of Jupiter and Saturn

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide19

Chapter 13

End of Chapter 13

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide20

Chapter 13

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide21

Chapter 13

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com

slide22

Chapter 13

Survey of Astronomy

Astro1010-lee.com

twlee2016@gmail.com