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Organization of Course. Overall Project Issues & Examples Emissions Inventories Source-Receptor Post-Processing Source-Attribution for Deposition Model Evaluation Model Intercomparison Collaboration Possibilities. INTRODUCTION Course overview Air Toxics overview HYSPLIT overview

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Organization of course

Organization of Course

Overall Project Issues & Examples

Emissions Inventories

Source-Receptor Post-Processing

Source-Attribution for Deposition

Model Evaluation

Model Intercomparison

Collaboration Possibilities

INTRODUCTION

Course overview

Air Toxics overview

HYSPLIT overview

HYSPLIT Theory and Practice

Meteorology

Back Trajectories

Concentrations / Deposition

HYSPLIT-SV for semivolatiles (e.g, PCDD/F)

HYSPLIT-HG for mercury


Organization of course

Inputs to Model

land use

meteorology

emissions

For model evaluation, model inputs must be for the same time period as measurement data

Atmospheric Mercury Model

atmospheric chemistry

wet and dry

deposition

phase partitioning

Model Evaluation

Wet deposition data

Speciated ambient concentration data

Model

Inter-comparison

Model Visualization

Model Outputs

Wet and dry deposition of different Hg forms to sensitive ecosystems

Source attribution information for deposition


Organization of course

atmospheric

chemistry

inter-converts

mercury forms

Hg(0)

Hg from

other sources: local, regional & more distant

Hg(II)

Hg(p)

atmospheric deposition

to the water surface

emissions of

Hg(0), Hg(II), Hg(p)

atmospheric deposition

to the watershed

Measurement of ambient air concentrations

Measurement of wet deposition

WET DEPOSITION

  • complex – hard to diagnose

  • weekly – many events

  • background – also need near-field

AMBIENT AIR CONCENTRATIONS

  • more fundamental – easier to diagnose

  • need continuous – episodic source impacts

  • need speciation – at least RGM, Hg(p), Hg(0)

  • need data at surface and above

3


Organization of course

Canaan Valley

Institute-NOAA

Beltsville

EPA-NOAA

Grand Bay

NOAA

Largest sources of total mercury emissions to the air in the U.S. and Canada, based on the U.S. EPA 1999 National Emissions Inventory

and 1995-2000 data from Environment Canada

Three NOAA sites committed

to emerging inter-agency speciated mercury ambient concentration measurement network

(comparable to Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) for wet deposition, but for air concentrations)

4


Organization of course

Monitoring Site

NOAA

SEARCH

USGS

UWF/FSU

MDN

type of mercury

emissions source

coal-fired power plant

waste incinerator

manufacturing

total atmospheric

mercury emissions

(kg/yr, 1999 EPA NEI)

metallurgical

other fuel combustion

1 – 50

50 - 100

100 - 200

200 - 400

Mississippi

Alabama

Barry

MS 22

paper manuf

paper manuf

AL02

Pascagoula

MSW incin

Mobile

Molino

Crist

Victor J. Daniel

Holcim Cement

Pace

OLF

haz waste incin

Ellyson

AL24

Weeks

Bay

Mobile

Bay

Jack Watson

Pascagoula

NOAA Grand Bay

NERR Hg site


Organization of course

Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Site

at the Grand Bay NERR, MS

view from top of the tower

mercury and trace gas

monitoring tower

(10 meters)


Organization of course

Atmospheric Measurements at the Grand Bay NERR

“Speciated” Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations

Trace gases to help understand and interpret mercury data

Meteorological Data

WET DEPOSITION: Currently being added, in collaboration with

MS DEQ and U.S. EPA



Organization of course

We are organizing the initial collaborative work around specific episodes of high concentration of one or more mercury forms

10


Organization of course

Hg from specific episodes of high concentration of one or more mercury forms

other sources: local, regional & more distant

atmospheric deposition

to the water surface

atmospheric deposition

to the watershed

Measurement of ambient air concentrations

Measurement of wet deposition

11


Some additional measurement issues from a modeler s perspective
Some Additional Measurement Issues specific episodes of high concentration of one or more mercury forms(from a modeler’s perspective)

  • Data availability

  • Simple vs. Complex Measurements


Simple vs complex measurements 1 wet deposition is a very complicated phenomena

ambient air

monitor

wet dep

monitor

Simple vs. Complex Measurements: 1. Wet deposition is a very complicated phenomena...

?

  • many ways to get the “wrong” answer – incorrect emissions, incorrect transport, incorrect chemistry, incorrect 3-D precipitation, incorrect wet-deposition algorithms, etc..

?

?


Organization of course

  • atmospheric phenomena are complex and not well understood; they can get those right, they can try to do wet deposition...

  • models need “simple” measurements for diagnostic evaluations;

  • ground-level data for rapidly depositing substances (e.g., RGM) hard to interpret

  • elevated platforms might be more useful (at present level of understanding)

monitor above

the canopy

?

monitor

at ground level

Simple vs. Complex Measurements: 2. Potential complication with ground-level monitors... (“fumigation”, “filtration”, etc.)...


Organization of course

  • Simple vs. Complex measurements - 3. Urban areas: they can get those right, they can try to do wet deposition...

  • Emissions inventory poorly known

  • Meteorology very complex (flow around buildings)

  • So, measurements in urban areas not particularly useful for current large-scale model evaluations


Simple vs complex measurements 4 extreme near field measurements
Simple vs. Complex Measurements – they can get those right, they can try to do wet deposition...4: extreme near-field measurements

Sampling site?

Ok, if one wants to develop hypotheses regardingwhether or not this is actually a sourceof the pollutant (and you can’t do a stack test for some reason!).

  • Sampling near intense sources?

  • Must get the fine-scale met “perfect”


Complex vs simple measurements 5 need some source impacted measurements
Complex vs. Simple Measurements – they can get those right, they can try to do wet deposition...5: Need some source impacted measurements

  • Major questions regarding plume chemistry and near-field impacts (are there “hot spots”?)

  • Most monitoring sites are designed to be “regional background” sites (e.g., most Mercury Deposition Network sites).

  • We need some source-impacted sites as well to help resolve near-field questions

  • But not too close – maybe 20-30 km is ideal (?)