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Chapter 4. Gender Self-Concept: Developmental Processes and Individual Differences. ____________________. Gender Self-Concept . Gender identity: One’s self-definition as female or male Most people establish a gender identity consistent with their external reproductive organs

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chapter 4
Chapter 4

Gender Self-Concept: Developmental Processes and Individual Differences

____________________

gender self concept
Gender Self-Concept

Gender identity: One’s self-definition as female or male

  • Most people establish a gender identity consistent with their external reproductive organs
  • Across gender identity, people vary in their gender attitudes: beliefs about the appropriate traits, interests, behaviors, and roles of females and males

______________________

theories of gender typing
Theories of Gender Typing

Gender typing: the acquisition of the traits, behaviors, and roles that are generally associated with one’s gender

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theories of gender typing1
Theories of Gender Typing

Psychoanalytic theory (Sigmund Freud): gender typing stems from children’s awareness of anatomical differences between females and males combined with their strong inborn sexual urges

  • Oedipus complex
  • Castration anxiety
  • Identification
  • Penis envy

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theories of gender typing2
Theories of Gender Typing

Social learning theory (Walter Mischel): children acquire behaviors associated with their gender because those behaviors are more likely to be imitated and to be associated with positive reinforcement

  • Observational learning
  • Reinforcement and punishment
  • Cognition (Social cognitive theory)

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theories of gender typing3
Theories of Gender Typing

Cognitive developmental theory (Lawrence Kohlberg): Children are active learners, attempting to make sense of the social environment

  • Gender constancy: the belief that gender is permanent regardless of changes in age, behavior, or appearance

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theories of gender typing4
Theories of Gender Typing

Gender schema theory (Sandra Bem)

  • Children develop an interrelated set of ideas (schema) about gender that guides their social perceptions and actions
  • Gender schema development stems from learning the gender norms and practices of society
  • Individuals vary in the extent to which they use gender schemas to understand and evaluate others and to guide their own behavior

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prenatal development
Prenatal Development

Prenatal sex differentiation: The biological processes that influence the making of our physical sex

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prenatal development1
Prenatal Development

Stages of prenatal sex differentiation

  • Chromosomes
  • Gonadal development
    • Androgens
    • Estrogens
  • Development of internal reproductive organs
  • External genitalia
  • Brain differentiation

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prenatal development4
Prenatal Development

Intersexuality: The intermingling of female and male sexual characteristics

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)

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prenatal development5
Prenatal Development
  • Turner syndrome
  • 1/3000 females
    • Single X chromosome (XO) : small, unable to reproduce, stubby fingers, webbed neck
prenatal development6
Prenatal Development
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome
  • 1/200 males
  • XXY: Sterility, feminine traits
prenatal development7
Prenatal Development
  • Androgen-insensitivity syndrome
  • Born XY
  • Inability of receptors to receive testosterone
prenatal development8
Prenatal Development
  • 5 alpha-reductase and 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency
    • “guevedoces”
prenatal development9
Prenatal Development

Development of intersexuality

  • Effects of prenatal hormones on gender-related interests and activities
  • Prenatal experiences and gender of rearing
  • Cultural values
  • Sexual orientation
  • Research challenges

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prenatal development10
Prenatal development
  • The John/Joan Case
    • David Reimer “As Nature Made Him”
  • Transgender (Gender Identity Disorder)
gender related traits
Gender-Related Traits

Individuals vary in the extent to which they conform to stereotyped expectations about their gender

  • Femininity
  • Masculinity
  • Androgyny
  • Undifferentiation

_____________________

gender related traits1
Gender-Related Traits

Changes in gender-related traits over time

  • Women’s scores on masculinity have increased since the 1970s (Twenge, 1997b)
  • Young women today are more likely than their counterparts in the 1970s to have experienced and been encouraged toward roles that involve male-stereotyped characteristics

_____________________

gender related traits2
Gender-Related Traits

Gender-related traits and psychological adjustment

  • Research demonstrates that positive aspects of masculinity (e.g., independence, mastery) are associated with positive psychological well-being (Woodhill & Samuels, 2003)
  • Male-related traits are more highly valued in North American society

_____________________

gender attitudes
Gender Attitudes

People differ in the extent to which they believe that gender should dictate females’ and males’ roles

  • Traditional gender attitude: the belief that females should engage in communal behaviors and roles and males should engage in agentic behaviors and roles
  • Nontraditional or egalitarian gender attitude: the belief that behaviors and roles should not be gender specific

_____________________

what do you think
What do you think?

Should gender dictate roles?

_____________________

what are your gender attitudes
What are your gender attitudes?

On a scale from 1 (strongly agree) to 7 (strongly disagree), indicate the degree to which you agree or disagree with the following statements:

  • The husband should be the head of the family
  • Keeping track of a child’s out-of-school activities should be mostly the mother’s responsibility
  • Home economics courses should be as acceptable for male students as for female students
  • A person should generally be more polite to a woman than to a man
  • It is more appropriate for a mother rather than a father to change their baby’s diaper
  • It is wrong for a man to enter a traditionally female career
  • Things work out best in a marriage if a husband leaves his hands off domestic tasks
  • Women can handle pressures from their jobs as well as men can
  • Choice of college is not as important for women as for men

_____________________

gender attitudes1
Gender Attitudes

Perceived value of female versus male gender-related attributes

  • College students associate more advantages with being male than being female
  • Advantages and disadvantages associated with each gender

_____________________

gender attitudes2
Gender Attitudes

Males who violate gender expectations are evaluated more negatively than females

  • Social status hypothesis: because the male gender role is more highly valued than the female role is, a male is seen as lowering his social status by engaging in female-stereotypic behaviors, whereas a female performing male-stereotypic behaviors is perceived as raising hers
  • Sexual orientation hypothesis: cross-gender behavior in boys but not girls is considered a sign of actual or potential same-sex sexual orientation

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