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Nutrition Health Education & Tobacco Intervention Program in Nepal 2010 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Nutrition Health Education & Tobacco Intervention Program in Nepal 2010. Aune Greggas. Nutrition. Digestive system Organic compounds Chemical elements: basic elements, minerals, trace elements Vitamins. Aune Greggas. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.

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Education& Tobacco



in Nepal


Aune Greggas


  • Digestive system

  • Organic compounds

  • Chemical elements: basic elements, minerals, trace elements

  • Vitamins

Aune Greggas

Digestive system

  • Biologically food, water and air are the physical requirements of all the living organisms.

  • Food is processed in the digestive system.


Aune Greggas

People have 32 teeth (radiograph)

  • The teeth cut up and grind the food fine.

  • They have a very strong white enamel(mica).

  • Sugars and acids can break it.

  • This kind damage is called dental caries.

Dental caries
Dental caries

  • Dental caries is also known as tooth decay or a cavity.

  • It is a disease where bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure producing dental caries (cavities and holes in the teeth).

  • Washing teeth decreases it.


  • The gingivitis is a usual disease among those whose teeth hygiene is low.

  • However, the gums can be healed if they are treated in the right way.

Cancer in the mouth
Cancer in the mouth

  • Inflammatory diseases in the mouth and in the gums are common with smokers and those who tug tobacco or betel nuts.

  • They can lead to cancer.

Hideo Ichiki, D.D.S., Smoking spoils health

Hideo Ichiki, D.D.S., Smoking spoils health


  • When the food is grinded the saliva glands of the mouth adds to the crunch enzymes needed to break up the food into that kind of chemical compounds which can be used by the body.

Salvary glands


  • When the food is swallowed, there are muscles which take it all the way through the esophagus to stomach by peristaltic wave.

Cancer in esophagus
Cancer in Esophagus

  • The use of alcohol, even in smaller amounts, increases the possibility to get cancer.

  • Most it increases cancers in the mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas and intestines.

Cancer in the esophagus.


  • In the stomach the chemical process to break up the food compounds continues with the enzyme pepsin (pepsinogen).

  • On the walls of the stomach there are also millions of gastric glands which secrete gastric juice.

  • It is mainly hydrochloric acid.

Stomach ulcer
Stomach ulcer

  • 70 - 90% of stomach ulcers are associated with Helicobacter pylori, a spiral-shaped bacterium that lives in the acidic environment of the stomach.

  • Aspirin might make it worse.

  • Peptic ulcer precedes often stomach cancer.

Peptic ulcer

Stomach cancer


  • The liver collects nutrients from the blood and stores them in the liver.

  • Among those nutrients are carbon hydrates, minerals, trace elements and vitamins.

Glykogen store
Glykogen store

  • If the blood sugar is high, the glucose in it is changed to glycogen and stored in the liver.

  • If the blood sugar is low, glycogen is released from store areas and broken to glucose. This keeps blood sugar level even.

Schematic 2-D cross-sectional view of glycogen. A core protein of glycogen is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain approximately 30,000 glucose units


  • The liver is also a detoxifyer.

  • It breaks down or transforms substances like metabolic waste, ammonia, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, drugs and chemicals, so that they can be excreted.

The liver of a child is not able to detoxify alcohol.


  • The hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver.

  • Symptoms are jaundice, fatigue, fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity, and brain dysfunction due to liver failure.

  • Severe cases have a high risk of death.

Alcohol hepatitis is due to the use of excess alcohol. Hepatitis is common also among drug users.

Liver cirrhosis
Liver cirrhosis

  • The cirrhosis is characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules leading to loss of liver function.

  • Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism, hepatitis or fatty liver disease.

Clip Art - Cirrhosis versus normal liver

3D714002 LifeART Medical Illustrations Royalty Free Photograph


  • The pancreas is a gland which extracts insulin.

  • Insulin is a hormone which helps to transfer glucose to cells in the liver, muscles and fat tissue.

  • The disease which results of the lack of insulin is called the diabetes.

Blood sugar insulin
Blood sugar & insulin

  • A daily schedule (3 meals) and how it affects the blood sugar and insulin levels.


  • There are two types of diabetes.

  • Type 1 diabetes is inherited and begins already in the childhood.

  • Type 2 diabetes is found in adults with abdominal fatness and metabolic syndrome background.

Polydipsia = excess thirsty

Polyhagia = excess hunger

Polyuria = excess urination


The gallbladder stores bile.

Bile is released when food containing fat enters the digestive track.

Bile emulsifies fats in partly digested food to help their use. 



  • Bile sometimes crystallizes to gallstones.

  • Especially foods with lots of fats can invite intense abdominal pain, when the gallstones begin to move.


  • After the food has been processed in the stomach, it enters through duodenum to small intestine (7 - 8 meters).

  • From the cecum it continues through the colon to the rectum and then to the anus.



Small intestines






Salmonella infection
Salmonella infection

  • Many infections in the intestines are due to contaminated food.

  • To protect against Salmonella infection, it is recommended that food be heated at least ten minutes at 75 °C (167 °F).

Salmonella bacteria causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever and diarrhea.


  • Round rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children.

  • Good hygiene, washing hands and giving the child enough liquids is the best way to treat it at home.

  • Severe cases need hospital.


  • Constipation is usual with older people.

  • Depression and lack of activity makes is worse.

  • Food with lots of fibers (oat, whole meal cereals, vegetables) and seeds can help to keep the bowel active.

Linen seeds have been commonly used to help in constipation.

Organic compounds

  • All the main organic compounds in the living organisms are made of water, carbohydrates, proteins (amino acids) and lipids.

  • Most of our food is also made of them.

Water h 2 o
Water H2O

  • 50 - 70 % of human body is water.

  • People with strong muscles have most water in their body.

  • If you are not sure that your drinking water is clean, it is best to boil it first and drink then.

Aune Greggas

Carbohydrates c m h 2 o n
Carbohydrates Cm(H2O)n

  • A carbohydrate is an organic compound which consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

  • To them belong sugars (glucose and sucrose and lactose) and larger polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose, ribose).

In food science carbohydrate means any food that is rich in starch (cereals, bread and pasta) or sugars.


  • The main biological functions of lipids include energy storage.

  • Their caloric content is about 9 kcal/g compared with 4 kcal/g for carbohydrates and proteins.

  • Lipids in the food can be liquid (vegetable oils) or hard (butter, animal fats).

  • Liquid fats are better than hard.

Mustard field

Aune Greggas


  • Proteins (also known as polypeptides) are organic compounds made of amino acids.

  • Examples of high-protein foods are tofu, dairy products, fish and meat.

  • Soya beans has high amount of proteins and amino acids.

Tofu is made of soya beans.

Amino acids
Amino acids

  • Amino acids are critical to life, and have many functions in the body, in metabolism, as a neurotransmitter etc.

  • Also the genetic code is based on amino acids (DNA and RNA).

  • Amino acid molecules contain the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

H = Hydrogen

N = Nitrogen

C = Carbon

O = Oxygen

R represents a side chain specific to each amino acid (the amount of amino acids is 22)

Chemical elements

  • There are about 120 known chemical elements in the world.

  • In nutrition some of them are called basic elements, some of them minerals (macronutrients) and some of them trace elements (micronutrients).

  • In all the living organisms, the most important chemical elements are hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (96 %).

Periodic table of elements
Periodic table of elements

Basic elements: Hydrogen 1, Carbon 6, Nitrogen 7, Oxygen 8

Hydrogen h
Hydrogen (H)

  • Hydrogen is a gas.

  • It is the most abundant element in the universe.

  • Water (H2O) has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

  • 70 - 90 % of fruits (oranges, apples) and vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) and 50 - 70 % human beings is water.

Carbon c
Carbon (C)

  • Carbon is a nonmetallic black chemical element.

  • Its name comes from coal. Coal has usually been made of old forests.

  • Carbon (carbohydrates) can be found in cereals (rice, wheat), vegetables (potatoes, corn, carrots) and in fruits (bananas).

  • Also diamonds are of carbon.

Nitrogen n
Nitrogen (N)

  • Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas.

  • 78 % of the air in the atmosphere is nitrogen.

  • Nitrogen is present in all living organisms, in proteins, nucleic acids and other molecules. It makes up around 4 % of the plant matter, and around 3 % of the weight of the human body.

  • It is a large component of animal waste.

Oxygen o
Oxygen (O)

  • Oxygen is a very important gas.

  • In living organisms oxygen inhaled in the air is needed for energy production.

  • Also other energy production, burning trees, fuel, gas etc. are dependant on oxygen.

  • In the air there is about 20 % oxygen.

  • Oxygen is released to the air by photosynthesis in the green leaves and algae.


  • There are chemical elements which are needed only some grams.

  • The most important of them are sodium (natrium), magnesium, phosphor, sulfur (sulphur), chlorine, potassium (kalium) and calcium.

  • Of the living organisms these macronutrients represent 1 - 1,5 %.

Periodic table of elements1
Periodic table of elements

Minerals: Natrium 11, Magnesium 12, Phosphor 15, Sulphur 16, Chlorine 17, Kalium 19, Calcium 20

Sodium also called natrium na
Sodium, also called natrium (Na)

  • The most well known food product which includes sodium is salt.

  • In one gram salt there is about 0,4 g sodium.

  • Need for day is 1,5 g.

  • Too much salt increases the blood pressure.

Salt (NaCl) is used to give taste and to preserve food.

Magnesium mg
Magnesium (Mg)

  • Whole grain cereals, spices, nuts and vegetables are rich sources of magnesium.

  • Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, are rich in magnesium as they contain chlorophyll.

  • Low levels found in asthma, diabetes, osteoporosis.

Phosphorus p
Phosphorus (P)

  • Phosphorus is a key element in all known forms of life.

  • It is found in the cells (DNA, RNA), used in body energy production (ATP) and in the bones (calcium phosphate).

  • Whole grain cereals and fishes include phosphorus.

Aune Greggas

Sulfur or sulphur s
Sulfur or sulphur (S)

  • Sulfur is a bright yellow crystalline solid element.

  • It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids.

  • It is used as a fertilizer.

  • It can be found in lentils, beans, eggs, animal products.

Lentil soup

Aune Greggas

Chlorine cl
Chlorine (Cl)

  • As the chloride ion chlorine is abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of life, also to human beings.

  • Common salt is Natrium chloride (NaCl).

  • Iodine is often added to salt to prevent struma.

In the picture salt stored in Trapan, Sicilien.

Salt has been one of the first merchandizes.

Potassium of kalium k
Potassium of kalium (K)

  • Potassium is an essential mineral macronutrient in human nutrition.

  • It is important in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.

  • Fruits and vegetables rich in potassium include citron fruits, potatoes, bananas, avocados, broccoli, soybeans, tomatoes, cantaloupes, garlic etc.

Potassium is abundant in most fruits and vegetables.

Calcium ca
Calcium (Ca)

  • Calcium is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology.

  • It is a major material used in mineralization of bones.

  • A diet high in fruit, vegetables and cereals has been demonstrated to result in greater femoral bone mineral density to other diets.

Almonds and sesame seeds are a good source for calcium. It is also in milk products,

Trace elements

  • Some chemical elements are needed maybe only for some milligrams or micrograms.

  • They are called trace elements or micronutrients.

  • The most important of these are chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum, fluorine and iodine.

Periodic table of elements2
Periodic table of elements

Trace elements: Chromium 24, Manganese 25, Iron 26, Cobalt 27, Copper 29, Zink 30, Selenium 34, Molybdenum 42, Fluorine 9, Silicon 14 and Iodine 53.

Iron fe
Iron (Fe)

  • The most important of the micronutrients is iron.

  • It is very important part of the blood cells.

  • Iron can be found in whole grain cereals, soya, peas, beans, seeds, meat.

  • Deficiency: anemia.

Main symptoms that may appear in anemia.

Zink zn
Zink (Zn)

  • Zinc is very important when healing scars.

  • It is also needed in stress situations and infections.

  • Zink is found in wheat (germ and bran) and various seeds (sesame, sunflower, mustard), beans, nuts, almonds, whole grain cereals, blackcurrant.


Aune Greggas

Copper cu
Copper (Cu)

  • The human body contains about 1.4 to 2.1 mg for each kg of body weight.

  • It is needed when blood cells are developing and in many other functions in the human body.

  • It can be found in mushrooms, bran, spinach, nuts, sesame and sunflower seeds, avocados, peas.


Aune Greggas

Manganese mn
Manganese (Mn)

  • Manganese is needed when children are growing and it has to do with the fat metabolism.

  • It is also needed in physical activity.

  • Manganese is found in berries, carrots, nuts, soya flour, whole grain cereals.

Physical activity

Aune Greggas

Chromium ch
Chromium (Ch)

  • Lack of chromium might be reason for childlessness.

  • Lack of chromium is also often connected with defects in sugar metabolism.

  • Chromium is found in sesame seeds, whole grain cereals, mushrooms, honey.


Selenium se
Selenium (Se)

  • Selenium is an antioxidant and helps muscles to get oxygen and keep the body cells in good condition.

  • It is found in whole grain cereals, mushrooms, seeds, lentils, soya products, fish, meat, milk, eggs.

  • Lack of it increases the possibility to get infections, even cancer.

Aune Greggas


Learn which are eatable and which are not eatable mushrooms.

Molybdenum mb
Molybdenum (Mb)

  • Molybdenum helps copper in its work.

  • Molybdenum is found in peas, soya products, whole grain cereals, green vegetables, eggs, potatoes.


Aune Greggas

Cobalt co
Cobalt (Co)

  • Cobalt is an essential trace element for all animal organisms as the active center of coenzymes.

  • Cobalt is a part of B12 vitamin which is needed to make blood cells.

  • Cobalt is found in germ and bran.

Iodine i
Iodine (I)

  • Iodine is needed for cell metabolism and lack of it hinders both intellectual and body growth.

  • It is found in milk, salt with iodine, sea fishes, sea algae.

Breast milk is the best food for babies.

Fluorine fl
Fluorine (Fl)

  • There is fluorine in bones and teeth, especially on the teeth mica, the hard cover which shields the teeth.

  • Fluorine is found in whole grain cereals, potatoes, green vegetables, berries (strawberries) and some fishes.


Aune Greggas

Silicon si
Silicon (Si)

  • Most silicon in the human body is in hair, skin and nails.

  • It is also needed when bones are growing.

  • Silicon is found in whole meal cereals and vegetables.

Aune Greggas


  • Vitamins are organ compounds which are needed only micro- or milligrams per day.

  • The most important of them are A-, B-, C-, D-, E- and K-vitamins.

  • B- and C-vitamins are water soluble and they are needed every day.

  • A-, D-, E- and K-vitamins are fat soluble and they can be stored in the body for later use.

A vitamin

  • A-vitaminis needed for growth, growth of bones, skin and mucous membranes and for immunity.

  • It is found in vegetables which include carotenoids:carrots, parsley, spinach, nettle, paprika, tomatoes, rose berries. It is also found in meat, cheese, eggs.

B vitamins

  • There are several B-vitamins.

  • Best known are thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid.

  • They are important for the nerve functions, in the stress situations and in the metabolism.

  • They are found in whole meal cereals, peas, beans, nuts and almonds.

  • B12 (cobalamin) is found in milk products, eggs, fish and meat (as wells as also riboflavin).

B vitamins according to numbers
B-vitamins according to numbers

  • B1 = thiamine..

  • B2 = riboflavin………………….

  • B3 = niacin…..

  • B5 = pantothenic acid...

  • B6 = pyridoxine…….

  • B7 = biotin…

  • B9 = folic acid……………………..

  • B12 = cobalamin……….........................

C vitamin

  • C-vitamin is an antioxidant.

  • It is needed to resist diseases, to keep the skinin good order,when healing scars and in growth of bones and tissues and to absorb iron to the body.

  • C-vitamin is found in fruits, specially in citrus-fruits, berries, potatoes, cabbage, garlic.

C-vitamin (ascorbin acid) is needed to absorb iron to the body. It is also often used to resist common flu.

D vitamin

  • Itis important for the metabolism of calcium and phosphor (bones and teeth), and also to keep the resistance against different diseases high.

  • It is synthesized by sunlight.

  • It is also found in fishes, fish oils, soya beans, eggs, butter, cheese, mushrooms.

Aune Greggas

Aune Greggas

Fishes and fish oils

E vitamin

  • E-vitaminis an antioxidant and it is needed to keep up the cell functions and good skin.

  • It also shields the cells from damage and of heavy metals and toxins.

  • It is found in vegetable oils, soya beans, cereals, mangos, papayas, almonds, nuts, sesame seeds etc.

Soya beans, soya flour and soya milk have E-vitamin.

K vitamin

  • K-vitaminis needed for blood coagulation.

  • It is made in large intestine.

  • To make it will be needed: bran, potatoes, green vegetables, especially cabbages, spinach, soya flour.


  • Whole grain cereals


Choose always bread where all the macro- and micronutrients are still left.


  • Fruits


  • Vegetables

Not recommended
Not recommended

  • Lots of candy and sweet drinks

Uma Thapa

Not recommended1
Not recommended

  • Alcohol (ethanol)

Not recommended2
Not recommended

  • Tobacco

Not recommended3
Not recommended

  • Smoking

Not recommended4
Not recommended

Nutrition is full of manifold.There are so many things we can safely drink and eat and feel well.

But not everything.

Choose always what is best for health!.

We thank

  • Ministry for the Foreign Affairs, Finland

  • ETRA–liittory, Finland, Aune Greggas

  • Scheer Memorial Hospital, Banepa, Kavre, Sundar Thapa, Pratigya Ranjit, HETIP team

  • Wikipedia, A.D.A.M., LifeART Medical Illustrations, Fixmedia, Biohit, Healthylifestyle, Liverdoctor, Food-faq, University of Minnesota, Hideo Ichiki, Federal State and Territory Health Initiative, Australia (videos)