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Evaluating the effect of cameras in taxicab driver safety. Preliminary Findings Cammie Chaumont Menéndez, Ph.D. September 13, 2011 . Taxicab Driver Fatalities. Decreased over past 20 years Fatality rates remain higher than national rates

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evaluating the effect of cameras in taxicab driver safety

Evaluating the effect of cameras in taxicab driver safety

Preliminary Findings

Cammie Chaumont Menéndez, Ph.D.

September 13, 2011

taxicab driver fatalities
Taxicab Driver Fatalities
  • Decreased over past 20 years
  • Fatality rates remain higher than national rates
  • Expected to increase as city crime rates began rising in 2010
occupational homicide rates for all workers and taxicab drivers united states 1992 2008
Occupational Homicide Rates For All Workers and Taxicab Drivers, United States – 1992—2008
prevention measures
Prevention Measures
  • Industry-led initiatives and/or ordinances
    • Partitions
    • GPS and automated dispatch
    • Cashless systems
    • Cameras
    • Safety training
  • Variability in adoption of prevention measures
cameras as a safety feature
Cameras as a Safety Feature
  • Based on principles of crime prevention by surveillance
  • Affordability and availability facilitated adoption by leading taxi companies
  • Ordinances began requiring installation of security cameras in taxicabs
key public health questions
Key Public Health Questions
  • Are cameras truly effective in preventing crimes against taxicab drivers?
  • What features should cameras be equipped with for maximum effectiveness?
binational multi city study
Binational Multi-City Study
  • Partnership between IATR and CDC/NIOSH
  • Prominent metropolitan areas in both Canada and U.S.
    • Camera status per city
    • Number of licensed taxicabs per city
    • Crime reports/statistics involving taxi drivers
    • City crime rates
  • Time series with pre-post data and comparison groups spanning >15 years: 1996-2010
newspaper clippings data
Newspaper Clippings Data
  • Additional data source
  • Complements crime reports
  • Complete throughout time period, supplements crime reports
  • Same major limitation as crime reports
crime report data
Crime Report Data

Camera cities

Control cities

  • Vancouver (2005)
  • Ottawa (2007)
  • Winnipeg (2003)
  • Toronto (2001)
  • Portland (2004)
  • Las Vegas (2005)
  • San Francisco (2003)
  • Seattle (2006)
  • Tampa
  • Denver
crime report data1
Crime Report Data
  • Distribution of homicides pre- versus post-camera installation
crime reports vs newspaper data
Crime Reports vs. Newspaper Data
  • Distribution of homicides pre- versus post-camera installation
preliminary findings crime reports vs newspaper data
Preliminary Findings:Crime Reports vs. Newspaper Data*

*Top row represents crime report data and bottom row represents corresponding newspaper data.

newspaper data
Newspaper Data

Camera cities

Control cities

  • Vancouver (2005)
  • Ottawa (2007)
  • Calgary (2007)
  • Winnipeg (2003)
  • Toronto (2001)
  • Portland (2004)
  • Orlando (2009)
  • Las Vegas (2005)
  • San Francisco (2003)
  • Seattle (2006)
  • Houston (1999)
  • San Antonio (2000)
  • Dallas (2000)
  • Austin (2005)
  • Montreal
  • Washington, DC
  • Atlanta
  • Tampa
  • Miami
  • Reno
  • Columbus
  • Denver
  • San Diego
  • Phoenix
  • Sacramento
  • New Orleans
  • Honolulu
  • Cincinnati
study limitations
Study Limitations
  • Possible underreporting of crime reports
  • Unable to determine license status of drivers
  • Unable to evaluate safety trainings
  • Unable to evaluate level of enforcement
conclusions
Conclusions
  • The data suggest a protective effect from cameras for homicide rates
    • Preliminary data
    • Ecological data do not reflect individual risk but, rather, is an aggregated experience
    • We are planning study to evaluate individual risk of drivers with cameras versus drivers without in 3 cities
acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Harlan Amandus, PhD
  • Scott Hendricks, MS
  • Srinivas Konda, MPH

And special thanks to:

Terry Wassell

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

slide19

“Taxicab Security Camera System Evaluation Study” Project Progress Report Shengke Zeng, Bradley Newbraugh, Richard Current, Douglas Cantus, Darlene WeaverPlease contact: szeng@cdc.gov

objectives of camera evaluation study
Objectives of Camera Evaluation Study
  • Determine requirements for taxicab camera system evaluation
  • Determine minimum requirements for taxicab camera systems
  • Evaluate technological advantages and limitations of sample taxicab cameras in use
  • Determine research needed to improve taxicab cameras to maximize effect
  • Develop technical guidance for taxicab security camera selection and use
status of evaluation study 1
Status of Evaluation Study (1)
  • Completed human subject tests and calculations to determine head movement speed
  • Re-measured field taxicab light conditions
  • Modified taxicab lighting equipment setup
  • Modified the methods of reference camera parameter measurements
status of evaluation study 3
Status of Evaluation Study (3)
  • Will complete reference camera tests in late Sep. 2011
  • Will send test photo sets to photo quality evaluators for threshold determination in late Sep. 2011
  • Will complete sample camera system tests in Dec. 2011
  • Will complete test report/guidelines in Mar. 2012
preliminary findings crime reports vs newspaper data1
Preliminary Findings:Crime Reports vs. Newspaper Data*

*For each variable, top row represents crime report data and bottom row represents corresponding newspaper data.

preliminary findings crime reports vs newspaper data2
Preliminary Findings:Crime Reports vs. Newspaper Data*

*For each variable, top row represents crime report data and bottom row represents corresponding newspaper data.