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Life Cycle Models for High-Technology Projects Applying Systems Thinking to Managing Projects. Russell D. Archibald Fellow PMI and APM/IPMA, PMP, MSc PMI-São Paulo 4 th International Seminar Sáo Paulo, Brazil, December 9-10 2004. Purpose of My Presentation. To enhance your ability to:

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life cycle models for high technology projects applying systems thinking to managing projects

Life Cycle Models for High-Technology ProjectsApplying Systems Thinking to Managing Projects

Russell D. Archibald

Fellow PMI and APM/IPMA, PMP, MSc

PMI-São Paulo 4th International Seminar

Sáo Paulo, Brazil, December 9-10 2004

purpose of my presentation
Purpose of My Presentation
  • To enhance your ability to:
    • Develop the best life cycle model for your projects
    • Document your Project Life Cycle Management System/PLCMS
    • Improve your PLCMS through systems thinking

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Categorizing Projects
  • Project Life Cycle Models & PLCMS
  • Hi-Tech Project Categories & Their Life Cycles
  • Improving the PLCMS
  • Conclusions

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

1 categorizing projects
1. Categorizing Projects
  • Projects:
    • Are the common denominator for all aspects of project management
    • Exist in many sizes & types
    • Produce many different products & results
    • Can be classified in many different ways

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

recommended major categories
Aerospace/Defense

Business & Organizational Change Projects

Communication Systems Projects

Event Projects

Facilities Projects

Information Systems

International Development

Media & Entertainment

Product/Service Development

Research & Dev.

Recommended Major Categories

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

2 p roject l ife c ycle models plc m anagement s ystems
2. Project Life Cycle Models & PLCManagement Systems
  • Many life cycle models are in use
  • They portray a project as an overall process or system
  • Their purposes include:
    • To enable all to understand overall process
    • To capture best experience, enable improvement
    • To relate roles, responsibilities, systems and tools to all elements of the project

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

generic life cycle 4 phases
Generic Life Cycle: 4 Phases
  • Concept
    • Initiation, identification, selection
  • Definition
    • Feasibility, development, demonstration, design prototype, quantification
  • Execution
    • Implementation, realization, production & deployment, design/construct/commission, installation and test
  • Closeout

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

generic life cycles
Generic Life Cycles
  • Apply to any project
  • Too broad to be very useful, practical
  • Need to be tailored to the project category…

… And key environmental factors

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

3 parameters to work with
3 Parameters to Work With:
  • Number & definition of phases & sub-phases
  • Their inter-relationships: sequential, overlapping, repeated
  • Number, definition and placement of key decision points

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

identify deliverables each phase and sub phase
Identify Deliverables: Each Phase and Sub-Phase
  • Documents related to the project:
    • Objectives, scope, plans, schedules, reports, authorizations, work orders, etc.
  • Documents related to the product:
    • Specs, drawings, product cost, reports, etc.
  • Physical products or results:
    • Mock-ups, models, prototypes, test articles, tooling, equipment, software, facilities, materials, etc.

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

defining decision points
Defining Decision Points
  • Key events/milestones – ‘gates’ – at start & end of a phase or sub-phase
  • Decisions typically authorize project manager & team to:
    • Complete current phase, start next
    • Revise objectives, scope, schedule
    • Re-plan, re-start, repeat previous work
    • Terminate or put project on hold

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

deliverables decision points
Deliverables & Decision Points
  • Decisions are often made based on contents or results of key deliverables
  • Therefore these two elements are closely linked
  • You can’t make good decisions without adequate information

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

documenting a project life cycle management process
Documenting a Project Life Cycle Management Process
  • Define the life cycle:
    • Select the life cycle model to be used
    • Name phases, sub-phases decision points
    • Establish inter-relationships among them
    • Portray the result: flow chart, narrative
  • Specify authorizing documents:
    • Purpose & levels of approval authority
    • For initiation & major changes

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

documenting plcms cont d
Documenting PLCMS (Cont’d)
  • Identify key roles & define responsibilities
  • Identify major deliverables by phase
  • Specify issue escalation procedures
  • Specify differences for:
    • Major vs minor projects, or
    • Other project classes within a sub-category

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

3 hi tech project categories their life cycles
3. Hi-Tech Project Categories & Their Life Cycles
  • 4 (of 10) basic hi-tech categories:
    • Communication Systems
    • Information Systems
    • Product & Service Development
    • Research & Development

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

hi tech in other categories
Hi-Tech in Other Categories
  • Defense/Aerospace:
    • Very advanced, specialized life cycles prescribed by DOD & NASA
  • Facilities:
    • Very mature, specialized life cycle models
  • Hi-tech projects within programs in these and other categories can be placed in one of the preceding 4 hi-tech categories

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

two types of hi tech life cycle models
Two Types of Hi-Tech Life Cycle Models
  • Predictive:
    • Waterfall, Prototyping, Rapid Application Development/RAD, Incremental Build, Spiral
  • Adaptive:
    • Adaptive Software Development/ASD, Extreme Programming/XP, SCRUM

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

predictive life cycle models
Predictive Life Cycle Models
  • Waterfall
    • Linear ordering phases, sequential or overlapping, no phase repeated
  • Prototyping
    • Functional requirements and physical design specs are generated simultaneously
  • Rapid Application Development/RAD
    • Based on an evolving prototype that is not thrown away

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

predictive lc models cont d
Predictive LC Models (Cont’d)
  • Incremental Build
    • Decomposition of large development effort into a succession of smaller components
  • Spiral
    • Repetition of the same set of life-cycle phases such as plan, develop, build, and evaluate until development is complete

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

adaptive life cycle models
Adaptive Life Cycle Models
  • Adaptive Software Development/ASD:
    • Mission driven, component based, iterative cycles, time boxed cycles, risk driven, change tolerant
  • Extreme Programming/XP
    • Teams of developers, managers, and users; programming done in pairs; iterative process; collective code ownership

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

adaptive lc models cont d
Adaptive LC Models (Cont’d)
  • SCRUM (as in rugby)
    • Similar to above adaptive models with iterations called “sprints” that typically last 30 days
    • Defined functionality to be met in each sprint
    • Active management role throughout

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

xp resources
XP Resources

www.extremeprogramming.org/index/html

www.industriallogic.com

www.xprogramming.com

www.objectmentor.com/home

http://c2.com/cg/wiki?ExtremeProgrammingRoadmap

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

impact of environment on life cycle model selection
Impact of Environment on Life Cycle Model Selection
  • Project environment is of primary importance in selecting a LC model for a given project category:
    • Organizational characteristics
    • Familiarity with involved technology
    • Competitive demands (schedule, other)
    • Other

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

software life cycle models examples
Software Life Cycle Models - Examples

Source:

“The Project Manager’s Guide to Software Engineering’s Best Practices”

ISBN 0-7695-1199-6

IEEE Computer Society Press order # BP01199

Chapter 7, “Software Life Cycle Process Management”

4 improving the plcms
4. Improving the PLCMS
  • Document the integrated project life cycle model
  • Document & describe the PLCMS
  • Re-engineer the integrated process
    • Apply systems thinking: TOC
  • Implement the improvements
  • Repeat these steps as required

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

re engineer the plcms
Re-Engineer the PLCMS
  • Identify system constraints, gaps & weaknesses
  • Relate poor results to constraints & identify benefits to their removal
  • Look for speed bumps, accelerators
  • Redesign the PLCMS to remove constraints

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

implement improvements
Implement Improvements
  • Obtain approval to conduct tests and analyses
  • Plan, approve & execute the improvement project to implement the revised PLCMS

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

rational unified process rup
Rational Unified Process/RUP
  • Process framework for
    • Software development
    • Software customization
  • Also a ‘process product’ developed and maintained by IBM Rational:
    • Integrated with a suite of SW tools
    • Available on CD-ROM or via Internet

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

six best practices in rup
Six Best Practices in RUP
  • Develop SW iteratively
  • Manage requirements
  • Use component-based architectures
  • Visually model SW
  • Continuously verify SW quality
  • Control changes to the SW

For info:

www.maxwideman.com/papers/acquisition/intro.htm

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

apply theory of constraints toc source leach 2000
Apply Theory of Constraints/TOC (Source: Leach 2000)
  • Identify system constraints
  • Decide how to exploit system constraints
  • Subordinate all else to above decision
  • Elevate the system constraints
  • Does the new constraint limit output?

Yes: Back to step 1 No: Beware inertia

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

5 conclusions
5. Conclusions
  • Project categories are important:
    • Based on end results best way (?)
    • Sub-categories also needed
    • Further classification within categories and sub-categories needed

(see http:/projectcategories.org

-- and join our team!)

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

5 conclusions cont d
5. Conclusions (Cont’d)
  • Project life cycle models must be designed for each category/sub-category
    • Define and inter-relate phases & sub-phases
    • Identify deliverables for each of these
    • Define & relate decision points

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

5 conclusions cont d1
5. Conclusions (Cont’d)
  • Project Life Cycle Management System PLCMS must be well defined:
    • For each project category/sub-category
    • Enables application of systems thinking to improve the process

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

5 conclusions cont d2
5. Conclusions (Cont’d)
  • Two types of life cycle models are used for high-technology projects:
    • Predictive
    • Adaptive

With several variations within each of these

Selection depends on the key environmental factors affecting the project

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

5 conclusions cont d3
5. Conclusions (Cont’d)
  • Systematic improvement of PLCMS is achieved through:
    • Re-engineering the total system
    • Application of TOC to total PLCMS or to a given phase
  • Such improvement must be a major project management goal in every organization

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

further reading
Further Reading
  • Archibald: Managing High-Technology Programs and Projects, 3rd ed 2003
    • Chapters 2 and 3
  • Download this paper
  • 18 additional references given in the paper

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar

thanks for listening
Thanks for Listening
  • Questions?
  • Download this paper and/or slides at

www.russarchibald.com

go to ‘Author:Recent Papers’ &

select title of paper

  • Contact me: russell_archibald@yahoo.com

Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo 4th International Seminar