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Classroom Factors

Classroom Factors. PISA/PIRLS Task Force International Reading Association www.reading.org January 2005. Classroom Factors. Curriculum and instruction Resources and their use Assessment. 1. Curriculum and Instruction. PIRLS findings

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Classroom Factors

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  1. Classroom Factors PISA/PIRLS Task Force International Reading Association www.reading.org January 2005

  2. Classroom Factors • Curriculum and instruction • Resources and their use • Assessment

  3. 1 Curriculum and Instruction PIRLS findings • National/regional curriculum and assessments have greatest influence on school’s reading curriculum. • 38% of students are always or almost always taught reading as a whole-class activity. • 53% of students instructed using textbook or reading series. • Classrooms where all students use the same materials and work at their own speed are most common.

  4. 2 Curriculum and Instruction • On average, students receive 7 hours of language instruction weekly. • 84% of students read fiction weekly. 56% of students read nonfiction weekly. • Silent reading is a frequent daily activity for 66% of students. An additional 27% report reading silently at least weekly. • Majority of teachers (56%) report asking students to read aloud to whole class. Students report reading aloud less frequently—23% daily, 36% weekly.

  5. 3 Curriculum and Instruction PISA findings • Teachers with better qualifications were associated with higher achievement. • Teacher autonomy is positively associated with higher achievement. Excessive prescription of teaching practices does not appear to raise standards and may have the converse effect. • Student strategic self-management of learning was associated with higher achievement.

  6. 4 Curriculum and Instruction Establishing Context • Are individual student’s literacy needs in balance with national, regional, and community mandates? If not, how can balance be restored? • How much class time is allocated to reading? How does that compare to international averages? • Is whole-class reading instruction commonly used?

  7. 5 Curriculum and Instruction Establishing Context • Are most students using the same books? What are the advantages and disadvantages of this? For which students? • Do students read a good balance and variety of reading materials? • What is the typical balance between direct teacher instruction, independent silent reading, reading aloud to the class, and reading in groups or pairs?

  8. 6 Curriculum and Instruction Establishing Context • How are students encouraged to choose and manage their own reading? Is teacher direction of student reading overly emphasized? • What systems are in place to check on the effectiveness of student self-management efforts?

  9. 7 Curriculum and Instruction Planning Action What should reading professionals do to ensure that curriculum and instruction support reading achievement?

  10. 8 Resources and Their Use • Greater instructional resources correlate with higher achievement. (PISA) • Frequent use of available resources is key. (PIRLS) • Classroom libraries are under-used. (PIRLS) • High interest in using computers for learning activities correlates with higher reading performance. (PISA)

  11. 9 Resources and Their Use Establishing Context • What reading resources are available in the classroom? • Are we giving students regular access to the books we have? How do we know? • In how many different places are these books? How do we know? • If we don't know, how can we find out?

  12. 10 Resources and Their Use Establishing Context • Do we use the computers we have effectively and efficiently for reading-related activities? • Do students have regular and frequent access to computers for reading-related activities? • To what extent should we target available computers on groups who might benefit most?

  13. 11 Resources and Their Use Planning Action What should reading professionals do to ensure appropriate resources and their use?

  14. 12 Assessment PISA and PIRLS raised issues about both formative and summative assessment. Formative assessment – frequent, occurs during learning, enables adaptations of instruction on a small scale. Summative assessment – infrequent, occurs post-instruction, typically involves large numbers of learners, identifies broad issues in instructional effectiveness.

  15. 13 Assessment PIRLS findings on assessment methods • 70% - teacher’s professional opinion • 55% - classroom tests • 39% - diagnostic tests, • 23% - national/regional examinations • 16% - standardized tests

  16. 14 Assessment PISA findings related to achievement press • Achievement press correlates negatively with reading in 68% OECD countries and 50% non-OECD countries. • Correlation between such press and reading engagement was also largely negative. • Grading systems may not align with international benchmarks: students meeting teacher/school expectations may perform poorly on PISA/PIRL measures.

  17. 15 Assessment Establishing Context • Are formative and summative assessments in use? • Is demographic, organizational, and resource information collected and accessible? • Are whole school/regional development plans informed by the management information system?

  18. 16 Assessment Establishing Context • Is assessment balanced among oral and written questioning, diagnostic tests, classroom tests, standardized tests, and national/regional exams? Are there additional assessments? • Which tests are formative? Summative? Do some serve both purposes? • What are the relative advantages, disadvantages, and unintended consequences of various assessments?

  19. 17 Assessment Establishing Context • Are there regional differences concerning test sophistication or practice? Urban/rural differences? How do these compare to international averages? • What do literacy assessments suggest about instructional focus on reflection and evaluation as well as information retrieval and interpretative comprehension?

  20. 18 Assessment Establishing Context • Are students pressured by excessive emphasis on the results of externally-imposed summative tests? • Are teachers pressed by excessive emphasis on the results of externally-imposed summative tests? • What might be an unintended consequence of too little accountability or too little consistency?

  21. 19 Assessment Establishing Context • What is the source of benchmarks for grading students? Are there national benchmarks? • How does the grading system correlate with other assessments? Does the grading system take into account all pertinent assessment issues? • What evidence is there that outcomes of assessments are used in ways that enhance literacy learning? At the national/regional level? At school/class levels?

  22. 20 Assessment Planning Action What should reading professionals do to ensure that assessments support reading achievement?

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