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Karen Glaser, Debora Price, Eloi Ribe Montserrat, Giorgio di Gessa and Anthea Tinker King’s College London. Outline of presentation. The research study: Funder and timescale The objective of the research The research questions Findings Grandparent characteristics Living arrangements

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slide1

Karen Glaser, Debora Price, Eloi Ribe Montserrat, Giorgio di Gessa and Anthea Tinker

King’s College London

outline of presentation
Outline of presentation

The research study:

  • Funder and timescale
  • The objective of the research
  • The research questions
  • Findings
    • Grandparent characteristics
    • Living arrangements
    • Policy
    • Multivariate analysis
1 the research study funder and timescale
1. The research study – funder and timescale
  • Supported by the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation through Grandparents Plus and the Beth Johnson Foundation
  • Start April 2011/October 2011 – March 2013
  • Preliminary Findings Briefing June 2012
  • Final Report May 2013
2 the objective of the research
2. The objective of the research
  • To investigate variations across Europe in the diversity of grandparents, how grandparents contribute to childcare, and how policies are related to patterns of grandparenting.
3 the research questions
3. The research questions

1. How do the living arrangements of grandparents vary across European countries and how have they changed over time?

2. How do the characteristics of grandparents vary across 12 European states in terms of age, number of grandchildren, marital status, socio-economic status, participation in paid work, and well-being?

3 the research questions1
3. The research questions
  • How does the level of involvement of grandparents with their grandchildren vary across Europe in terms of care? What characteristics of grandparents help to explain the diversity of care arrangements?
  • How do family policies interact with gender, family, care and labour market cultures and structures to shape the levels of involvement of grandparents with their grandchildren?
4a findings grandparent characteristics
4a. Findings Grandparent Characteristics
  • How do the characteristics of grandparents vary across12 European countries? (e.g. age, number of grandchildren, marital status, socio-economic status, participation in paid work, and well-being)
data sources
Data Sources
  • ELSA (England) and SHARE – Austria, Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, Spain, Italy, France, Denmark, Greece, Switzerland and Belgium.
  • Both surveys are based on people aged 50 and over are comparable.
of older adults who are grandparents 12 european states
% of older adults who are grandparents: 12 European States

Source: SHARE, 2004/05; ELSA, 2002/03; own calculations. Weighted data.

age profile grandparents
Age profile grandparents
  • Considerable variation in % grandparents who are of working age (i.e. 50-64 age group).
  • England relatively high percentage (41%) as France and the Scandinavian countries (e.g. Denmark 50%)
  • Southern European countries only one third.
mean number of grandchildren
Mean number of grandchildren

Source: SHARE, 2004/05; ELSA, 2002/03; own calculations. Weighted data.

  • English grandparents also have more grandchildren than their European counterparts, with an average of nearly five (4.9) compared with an average across the other 11 countries of 4.2.
grandparents with at least one grandchild aged 0 2
% grandparents with at least one grandchild aged 0-2

Source: SHARE, 2004/05; own calculations. Weighted data.

  • Dutch grandparents most likely have grandchild < 3 followed by French, Danish and Swedish.
grandparents in paid work
% grandparents in paid work

Source: SHARE, 2004/05; ELSA, 2002/03; own calculations. Weighted data.

4b living arrangements
4b. Living Arrangements
  • Examine changes in living arrangements between grandparents and grandchildren over time (with or without the parents being present)in England & Wales, France, Germany, Portugal and Romania.
what do we not know
What do we not know
  • Lack evidence about trends and nature of grandparent households in Europe
  • Evidence from the UK suggests grandparents form largest group among family and friends awarded kinship care of children.
data sources1
Data Sources
  • Trends in prevalence of grandparent households
  • Multivariate analysis to investigate how grandparent households vary across selected European countries and U.S.
  • Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMS), the ONS Longitudinal Study for England & Wales, and the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP).
the findings
The Findings
  • Increase in prevalence over time in skipped-generation households in England & Wales (as in U.S.)
  • Skipped-generation households much more likely to have older grandchild – raised by grandparents?
  • England & Wales and US only countries where in skipped-generationhouseholds see increase in % households with youngest grandchild 0-5 (thus decrease in % households with 18+).
4c research question
4c. Research Question

To what extent are national patterns in the demography of (non-co-residential) grandparental care influenced by family policy at national level?

What difference does the nation state make?

What is it about the nation state that makes a

difference?

Focus on intensive grandmaternal care

method
Method
  • Select indicators
  • Tabulate across ten countries [cross-sectional, 2008 data, various sources: Eurostat, OECD, GGS, SHARE, EVS, Eurobarometer, National and International web sources (statistical and departmental agencies)]
  • Qualitative (theory driven) analysis of associations with grandparental care, using a constant comparative method
    • Note: outcome variable of grandparental care from various sources, 2004 – 2008 [but these kinds of national patterns change very slowly]
  • Select indicators to test with multi-level, multivariate model

Denmark, Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, France, the UK, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Hungary, Romania

indicators
Indicators

GRANDPARENTAL CHILDCARE

metadata
Metadata
  • Will be published as a web resource (2013)
  • Compares eleven widely differing European countries on over 100 indicators at a single point in time [2008]
  • Each country has three Excel ‘books’, one for each set of indicators (policy, family & gender, labour force)
  • + Tables of cross-eleven-country analyses
  • Summaries of policies will be in the report, and some comparative tables
grandparenting policy regimes
Grandparenting policy regimes
  • No assumption of grandparental care
    • (Denmark, Sweden and to a lesser extent France)
  • Grandparental care is assumed (explicit or implicit):
    • (Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Spain)
  • State policies are neutral
    • (Germany, Netherlands, UK)
  • But policy matrix is not the only factor
slide24

Source: SHARE 2004; Eurostat

LFS 2011

  • In countries where more mothers are out of work, grandmothers play a greater role in looking after grandchildren intensively.
  • Childcare is really challenging for those mothers who do work in these countries.

Note: No relationship between proportion of mothers working full time and grandparental care, whether daily, weekly or at all

slide25

Source: SHARE 2004; OECD 2011

  • In countries where it is more common for mid-life women not to be in paid work, more grandmothers care for their grandchildren intensively
  • There is a tension between women in their 50s and 60s being in paid work, and their being available to look after their grandchildren (enabling their adult daughters to work)
slide26

Source: SHARE 2004; EVS 2008

  • In countries where more of the population believes that a pre-school child suffers with a working mother, more grandmothers provide intensive childcare for their grandchildren
  • In these countries, it is more socially acceptable/accepted/trusted for grandmothers to care when mothers work, than for formal childcare services.
slide27

In countries where there is more use of formal childcare, especially long hours childcare, formal entitlements to childcare especially for children aged -0 – 2, the cost is low, there is low regional variation and high public satisfaction with public support for families, grandmothers play less of a role in providing intensive childcare.

  • These are complex interactions. If you only look at one or two columns, you miss the wider picture.
country level factors to be included in multi level analysis
Country-level factors to be included in multi-level analysis

Source: OECD 2011, Eurostat (EU-SILC) 2011, European Values Survey Wave 4.

4d policy grandparent childcare
4d. Policy & grandparent childcare
  • Testing policy model empirically with data about intensity and frequency of grandparental involvement with grandchildren.
  • Focus on intensive of grandparent childcare
intensive childcare
Intensive childcare

The outcome is provision of intensive childcare by grandparents

findings multivariate
Findings - Multivariate
  • You need both an understanding of demographic, policy, cultural-structural factors to explain variations in national patterns of grandparent childcare.
  • E.g. More women aged 50 to 64 in paid work, less intensive grandparent childcare.
  • E.g. More children 0-2 in formal care, less intensive grandparent care.
  • In countries (e.g. Italy, Portugal, Spain) women working full-time rely heavily on family care and on grandparent childcare in particular (as there is little formal childcare)
overall project aim
Overall Project Aim:
  • Theoretical development of understanding intergenerational relations in the realm of grandparental care;
  • Inform understanding of the relevance of policy and demography in understanding the structure of grandparenting;
  • Grandparents Plus: Evidence based campaigning for recognition and support of the role grandparents play in children’s lives, especially when they take on the caring role in difficult family circumstances