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Theories of Management. By: Jeff Koch Todd Devenburgh Kate McDermott. Scientific Management. Scientific management is a method in management theory that determines changes to improve labor productivity.

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theories of management

Theories of Management

By: Jeff Koch

Todd Devenburgh

Kate McDermott

scientific management
Scientific Management
  • Scientific management is a method in management theory that determines changes to improve labor productivity.
  • The idea was first coined by Frederick Winslow Taylor in The Principles of Scientific Management in 1911
frederick winslow taylor
Frederick Winslow Taylor
  • Developed the theories of Scientific Management
  • His innovations in industrial engineering, particularly in time and motion studies, paid off in dramatic improvements in productivity.
theory of scientific management
Theory of Scientific Management
  • Careful specification and measurement of all organizational tasks.
  • Tasks are standardized as much as possible.
  • Workers are rewarded and punished
  • This approach worked well for organizations with assembly lines and other mechanistic activities
criticism of scientific management
Criticism of Scientific Management
  • That humans are not inherently alike. What might be the most efficient way for one person may not be for someone else.
  • Ignores the fact that economic interest are different for management and employees.
operations management
Operations Management
  • Henri Fayol is described as the father of operations management
  • Proposed five functions of management
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Commanding
    • Coordinating
    • Controlling
difference between henri fayol and frederick winslow taylor
Difference between Henri Fayol and Frederick Winslow Taylor
  • Taylor viewed management processes from the bottom up, while Fayol viewed it from the top down.
  • Fayol wrote that "Taylor's approach differs from the one we have outlined in that he examines the firm from the "bottom up." he starts with the most elemental units of activity -- the workers' actions -- then studies the effects of their actions on productivity, devises new methods for making them more efficient, and applies what he learns at lower levels to the hierarchy.
14 principles of management
14 Principles of Management
  • Division of Work
  • Authority
  • Discipline
  • Unity of control
  • Unity of Direction
  • Subordination of individual interest
  • Remuneration
  • Centralization
  • Scalar chain (Line of Authority)
  • Order
  • Equity
  • Stability of Tenure of Personnel
  • Initiative
  • Esprit de Corps
application of the 14 principles
Application of the 14 Principles
  • Change and Organization
  • Decision-making
  • Skills can be used to improve the effectiveness of a manager
  • Understanding the management can be seen as a variety of activities which can be listed and grouped
behavioral approach to management
Behavioral Approach to Management
  • Focused on Human beings and their individual rights
  • Arose after the following were observed:
    • low productivity
    • lack of modern machinery
    • limited horsepower availability
    • anachronistic trade union practices
    • poor management
human relations theory
Human Relations Theory
  • Focused on motivation and employee care
  • Found if employees were satisfied with their work, they were more apt to perform better
elton mayo
Elton Mayo


Conducted Hawthorne Studies

mayo s conclusions
Mayo’s Conclusions
  • Work is a group activity
  • The social work of an adult is based on their work experiences
  • Workers need recognition, security, and a sense of belonging
mayo s conclusions cont
Mayo’s Conclusions, Cont.
  • A complaint is usually due to an employee’s dissatisfaction with his or her status
  • A worker’s attitude is shaped from forces inside and outside of the work environment
  • Informal groups in the workplace improve employees’ attitudes and productivity
mayo s conclusions cont1
Mayo’s Conclusions, Cont.
  • The change from an established society at home to an adaptive society at work can create disturbances in the workforce
  • Group work must be planned and implemented
human resources theory
Human Resources Theory
  • Focused on how an employee viewed their position and work experiences.
  • Found that manager’s ways of managing largely contributed to how an employee viewed their work.
douglas mcgregor
Douglas McGregor

1906 – 1964

Theory X and Theory Y

theory x
Theory X
  • Average human being dislikes work:
    • Most employees must be controlled and threatened before they will perform to the expectations
    • Humans like to be directed, dislikes responsibility, and wants job security
    • This lead to most organizations using “tough” management
      • Bad form of management because the employee needs the opportunity to fulfill their goals
      • This led employees to dislike their work
theory y
Theory Y
  • Physical and mental effort at work are very natural
  • Employees will be proactive if they are committed to the company and if the job is satisfying
  • Most employees learn to seek out responsibility
  • Imagination, creativity, and ingenuity can be used to solve work problems
  • Employees are not used to their full capacity
conclusions on theory x and y
Conclusions on Theory X and Y
  • These two theories are impractical at the workforce and are very different
  • McGregor suggested that managers look at the theories to start their view of management
  • MBO=Management by Objectives
    • Top management teams along with employees together define the company goals and direction that the company is going.
    • 3 Key components
      • Specific, achievable, measurable, realistic, time-specific
      • Goals are not unilateral within management
      • Managers give objective feedback
  • Popularized by Peter Drucker in 1954.
  • “Management by objectives works if you know the objectives. Ninety percent of the time you don’t.”-Peter F. Drucker
  • Works well within the U.S. culture, but often fails in others due to different styles in management
    • Ex. French because of their high power distance
  • Works well because all levels are involved in achieving the ultimate goal
path goal theory
Path-Goal Theory
  • Developed by Robert House
    • Remove obstacles
    • Clarify the path to the goal
    • Offer rewards
4 types of leaders
Achievement Oriented

Leader sets high goals

High performance levels

Confident in expectations being met


Tells them how to perform tasks

What is expected

4 Types of Leaders
types of leader cont

Consults with others before making decisions

Uses others suggestions to make the final decision




Needed when the follower lacks confidence

Types of Leader (cont.)