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Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)

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  1. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) STENUM GmbH www.stenum.at

  2. What is HACCP? • Problems • Foodborne diseases • Market access – importance of food safety all along the food-chain • Solutions • Food safety system that focuses on preventing problems before they occur • Industry-led programme used to improve and verify food safety • Answer HazardDanger to health AnalysisInvestigation of the hazard CriticalCrucial for containment ControlHandling of conditions PointsPosition in the process

  3. What is HACCP? Hazard Analysis and Critical Points Science-based, internationally accepted food safety system Focused on hazard identification and prevention Can be applied to all segments of the food chain Addresses chemical and physical hazards Source: Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech.

  4. Why adopt HACCP? • A properly functioning HACCP system will result in the production of safer food. • Benefits: • Improved food safety • Increased market access • Protection against liability • Drive for continuous improvement • Enhanced process control

  5. Where can HACCP be used? HACCP can be used in any food sector from production to retail HACCP Production Retail and food service Processing Transport

  6. The seven principles of HACCP I II III Establish critical limits for each critical control point Conduct a hazard analysis Identify critical points Establish critical control point monitoring requirements IV Establish procedures for verifying that the HACCP system is working as intended Establish record keeping procedures Establish corrective actions VII VI V

  7. ISO 22000 • Requirements for a food safety management system • 4 elements • Interactive communication • System management • Prerequisite programmes • HACCP principles Source: Van Voorst Consult

  8. Implementing HACCP • Preliminary Steps for the introduction of a HACCP System • Gathering the resources and information needed • Seven principles of HACCP in action • Completion of all steps will result in a properly functioning HACCP plan

  9. Preliminary steps • Assemble the HACCP team • Group of people that will oversee the implementation and maintenance of the HACCP programme • Multi-disciplinary (i.e. production, sanitation, management, etc.) • Including a HACCP-trained person

  10. Preliminary steps 2. Description of products and identification of intended use and consumers • Full description of the product(s) being manufactured under the programme • Product information assists with hazard analysis • Which group(s) will be consuming the food product • Where will the product be sold • How will it be prepared

  11. Preliminary steps 3. Development and verification of process flow diagram(s) • The flow diagram should • Outline all processing steps • Include all processing steps • The plant schematic should • Outline where all of the processing steps occur • Display the movement of products, people and waste

  12. Preliminary steps 4. Grouping of products • Decide whether products can be grouped using process categories • Slaughter – all species • Raw product – ground/not ground • Thermally processed – commercially sterile • Heat/not heat treated – shelf stable • Fully cooked – not shelf stable • Heat treated but not fully cooked – not shelf stable • Product with secondary inhibitors • Further categories for grouping can be commodity group, hazards, etc. • Products in the same process category may be covered by the same HACCP plan

  13. Principle I • Conduct a hazard analysis • Evaluate information regarding potential hazards associated with the manufacturing process and ingredients • Determine which hazards are significant to food safety • Consider: • Probability of occurrence • Severity of consequences

  14. What are hazards? • There are 3 types of hazards • Biological • Chemical • Physical • Do not forget cross-contamination • Microbiological, allergens

  15. Biological hazards • Biological hazards can cause illness and include: • Bacteria: E.coli, Salmonella, Listeria, Campylobacter, Shigella • Viruses: cold viruses, Hepatitis A, Norwalk virus • Parasites: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Trichinella, tapeworms • Yeasts and moulds • Any toxin produced by microbiological organisms is also a biological hazard

  16. Chemical hazards • Chemical hazards can cause injury or poisoning and include: • Naturally occurring substances (e.g. allergens, plant specific toxins) • Excessive, intentionally added chemicals: antibiotics, pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, nitrates • Accidentally added chemicals: cleaning chemicals, paint, pest control chemicals

  17. Physical hazards • Physical hazards are foreign objects that can cause injury: • Glass • Metal grindings, screws, nuts, bolts • Stones, pebbles • Needles • Hard plastic • Bones

  18. Principle II • Identify Critical Control Points (CCPs): • A CCP is a point, step or procedure at which a control measure has to be applied to prevent, eliminate or reduce a food safety hazard • CCPs are not: • Necessarily located where the hazard occurs, they may be located at a subsequent step • Some hazards cannot be controlled by the operator

  19. Principle III • Establish Critical Limits (CL) What is a critical limit? • The maximum and/or minimum value to which a parameter must be controlled at a CCP • The critical limit separates acceptability from unacceptability • The critical limit must be clearly defined and measurable

  20. Principle IV • Establish monitoring procedures • Monitoring: • Is the process of conducting a planned sequence of measurements to determine if a CCP is under control • Monitoring results must be recorded If monitoring shows that critical limits are not met, then the process is out of control and the food may be unsafe.

  21. Why? Principle V • Establish corrective actions • Corrective actions are pre-determined measures that have to be implemented when monitoring indicates that a deviation has occurred. • Corrective actions must: • Regain control of the process • Locate and segregate affected product • Determine disposal of affected product • Prevent a recurrence

  22. Principle VI • Establish verification procedures • Validation • Ensures that the HACCP plan is complete and valid • Ensures that the plan is effective in achieving expected food safety outcomes • Ongoing verification • Ensures that the HACCP plan is working effectively • Confirms that the plan is operating according to written procedures • Auditing • Overall review of the HACCP plan • To be performed whenever any changes occur that could affect the hazard analysis or alter the HACCP plan

  23. Principle VII • Establish record keeping procedures • Record keeping must be complete and accurate and includes: • Documentation pertaining to all steps, including the HACCP principles • Appropriate record storage procedures • A log book to keep track of changes

  24. HACCP system – Summary • HACCP systems consist of two elements • Prerequisite programmes • Implemented prior to HACCP plans • Control of the overall plant environment • Control factors not directly related to food (e.g. water quality, transportation and storage, plant sanitation, employee training) • HACCP plans • Implemented following pre-requisite programmes • Tailored to a certain product or process • Control factors directly related to food production