institutional roots of muslims educational choices in 19th century lebanon by hania abou al shamat n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Institutional Roots of Muslims’ Educational Choices in 19th Century Lebanon by Hania Abou al-Shamat PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Institutional Roots of Muslims’ Educational Choices in 19th Century Lebanon by Hania Abou al-Shamat

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 63

Institutional Roots of Muslims’ Educational Choices in 19th Century Lebanon by Hania Abou al-Shamat - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 148 Views
  • Uploaded on

Institutional Roots of Muslims’ Educational Choices in 19th Century Lebanon by Hania Abou al-Shamat. Arab Region late-19 th century. Background: 19 th C. Educational reform and Expansion/ Modern Education Introduced

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Institutional Roots of Muslims’ Educational Choices in 19th Century Lebanon by Hania Abou al-Shamat' - monte


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
institutional roots of muslims educational choices in 19th century lebanon by hania abou al shamat

Institutional Roots of Muslims’ Educational Choices in 19th Century LebanonbyHania Abou al-Shamat

arab region late 19 th century
Arab Region late-19th century
  • Background: 19th C. Educational reform and Expansion/ Modern Education Introduced
  • Puzzle: While Christians attended the new schools to receive modern education, Muslims continued to enroll in traditional Islamic schools
slide3

Distribution of Population and Pupils by religious communities

Year

City

% Population

% Pupils

Muslims

Non-Muslims

Muslims

Non-Muslims

1882

Jerusalem

67

33

10

90

1882

Aleppo

78*

22*

21

79

1882

Beirut

31

57

21

79

1907

Egypt**

92

8

48

52

*Population percentages for Aleppo are for 1840s.

** Egypt here includes

Sources: Bowring, John (1973). Report on the Commercial Statistics of Syria. New York: Arno Press, p. 3; Courbage, Youssef and Philippe Fargues (1997). Christians and Jews under Islam. (Translated by Judy Mabro). London: I.B.Tauris, p. 88; Diab, Henry and Lars Waehlin (1983). “The Geography of Education in Syria in 1882, with a Translation of ‘Education in Syria’ by Shahin Makarius, 1883.” Geografiska Annaler, 65 B, 2: P. 117, 120 & 121; Landau, Jacob (1969). Jews in 19th Century Egypt. New York: New York University Press, p. 6 & 72.

conventional explanations i
Conventional Explanations I

1. Access to Missionaries: Genesis of Modern Education

2. Early Indigenous Christian Schools: Early attempts to spread new schools

Counterarguments for 1 & 2:

- Mainly Religious, basic education

- Timing: why not pre-19th century?

**Missing: Structural Changes in the Job-market

conventional explanations ii
Conventional Explanations II

3. ‘Ulema’s Resistance to Change: Vested Interests prevented change

*Counterargument:

- ‘Ulema divided front

- Christian clergy resisted reform

4. State Neglect: curb Arab nationalism

* Counterargument

- Long history of private provision of education

- Arab nationalism: cross religious trend

According to 3 & 4: Islamic schools relied upon for elementary education

** Missing: Islamic schools were in demand

conventional explanations iii
Conventional Explanations III

5. Christians more prone to westernize (shared same religion); Muslims were defensive

  • Counterarguments:

- Historical evidence: Christians equally put at defensive

- Urgency to reform among Muslims

** Missing: Difference in institutions

the missing element
The Missing Element
  • Common Elements in conventional explanations

- Top-down reform (lack of agency for individuals)

- Supply side (necessary, not sufficient)

  • Missing: Demand for Education

- Evidence of active demand

- Quantitative & Qualitative impact on education

  • Focus on Demand (motives and incentives)
  • Challenges in capturing demand
  • Approach: reconstruct the job-market to derive skills needed
why 19 th century lebanon
Why 19th century Lebanon?
  • Geographic Area: Vilayet Beirut & Mount Lebanon
  • Leader in Educational Reform
  • Religious Diversity – compare and contrast educational choices
  • Job-market analysis extends to Egypt (migration effect)
lebanon early 19 th century
Lebanon Early 19th Century
  • Socio-economic structure: feudal
  • Social stratification: kinship and landownership
  • Limited Social mobility
  • Beirut: small city
  • Economy: mainly agricultural
  • Job-market

- Administration: judges, scribers, bookkeepers, accountants

- Education: religious

- Judiciary: religious codes

- Trade: internal

- Education needed: basic and religious

factors altering the old job market
Factors Altering the Old job market
  • Socio-economic effects of the silk industry

- Economy: silk cash crop, external trade

- Socio-economic system: emergence of middle class

- Social stratification: property, social mobility

- Beirut: major port city

- Job-market: External trade & New financial & Commercial services

  • Muslims’ absence from (Christian dominance over) external trade & new financial services
islamic legal institutions muslims absence from christians dominance over external trade i
Islamic Legal Institutions: Muslims’ Absence from (Christians’ dominance over) external Trade I

Conventional explanations: Co-religion, and Europeans’ bias against Muslims

Factors overlooked:

1. Islamic law: higher transaction cost

- Individualistic (lack of collective entities, corporations)

- Dominance of oral testimony (limited transactions’ longevity)

- Europeans’ avoidance of Islamic law and courts

islamic legal institutions muslims absence from christians dominance over external trade ii
Islamic Legal Institutions: Muslims’ Absence from (Christians’ dominance over) external Trade II

2. Legal Pluralism: Choice of law

- Christians’ benefits from being Protégés

- Supremacy of Islamic jurisdiction  lack of motives for the job

Long Term (unintended) consequences

1. Statistical discrimination against Muslims

2. Lost opportunities to gain new skills

military conscription
Military Conscription
  • Measures of service: Muslims’ opposition
  • Exemption:

- Fee payment

- Attendance of Islamic Schools

- Special occupations: civil servants, judges, muftis.

  • Consequence:

1. Increased demand for Islamic schools

2. Limited access to higher education

administration expansion
Administration Expansion
  • Attractiveness: stability, social mobility, social status and power.
  • Pre-Tanzimat:

- Administrative service restricted

  • Requirements: basic education, apprenticeship
  • Post-Tanzimat:

- Specialization: Muslims (both ranks)

Christians higher ranks

- Requirements: lower ranks  basic education

higher ranks  new education

  • Muslims  ‘Mixed’ education
parallel institutions
Parallel Institutions

Courts

Schools

Old Education: Islamic schools, public schools, private tutoring, private Islamic new schools

New Education: Foreign, missionary, Christian private schools, private tutoring

Three types of courts:

1. Shari’a:

Islamic education

2. Nizamiyyeh (later national):

old and new education

3. Mixed:

new education

summary
Summary
  • A network of institutions rewarded Islamic education and maintained its demand by:

- Directly increasing demand for old education

- Preserving the old job market, the arena for graduates of the Islamic schools

- Creating new jobs whose required skills were met by Islamic education

- Preventing new job opportunities that feedback on new education

women s education
Women’s Education
  • Marriage institution

- Emigration & civil strive 1860

1. Tightened marriage market for Christians

2. Increased competition

- Christians undergoing westernization

- Education as social investment and positional good

  • Job Market

- female workers in silk factories: altering patriarchal authority

- mechanization: challenging traditional female jobs

- Migration and civil strife: women left behind bread winners

- Education as economic investment (mainly captured by missionaries)

rhetoric in muslims newspapers
Rhetoric in Muslims’ Newspapers
  • Thamara>t al-Funu>n (1870s) criticizing quality of kuttabs and madrasas, praising quality of Christians’ schools, calling for modern education for the Muslims
  • al-Fajr al-S}a>diq (1879): declining conditions of Muslim schools (Compared to Christians’)
  • al-Mana>r, Rashi>dRid}a> (1890s): called upon Muslims to learn from the Syrian Protestant College example of modern education
two potential routes to provide new education among muslims
Two Potential Routes to Provide new education among Muslims

1. Reform of Islamic schools: Study effect of waqf institution on Islamic education

2. Establish new schools: Compare to Christian schools to detect problems faced

reform of islamic schools
Reform of Islamic schools
  • Effects of waqf: Static perpetuity, evidence of change

B. Approach: Analyze system’s structure, agents’ incentives to change. Agents of change: qadis (judges), muftis (jurisconsults), and teachers

C. Findings: Large scale reform hindered by:

(1) Individualistic structure of Islamic institutions confined frequency & scale of change

(2) legitimacy within Islamic Institutions held reform to what existed/discouraged innovation

founding new schools in the 19th century
Founding new schools in the 19th century

Approach: Compare Muslim & Christian schools

Findings:

  • Limited incentives to found new charitable waqfs

(2) Lack of Collective Legal entity  Limited resource pooling

(3) lack of central management  lack of flexibility

contributions i
Contributions I

1. New approach to revisit an old puzzle

- Shifting focus to the individual by analyzing demand

- Linking demand and supply to a network of institutions

  • Comprehensive two-sided explanation:

- At the demand side, a set of institutions kept Islamic education (Journal of Islamic Studies 20, 3 (2009): 317-351)

- At the supply side, institutions hindered Muslims’ ability for resource pooling (Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, under submission)

contributions ii
Contributions II
  • Transplanted institution does not guarantee internal demand. Institutional networks shape the dynamics of institutional transplant

(Policy implication: reform comes in packages)

4. Framework of analysis useful in addressing current issues in the Arab world

reframe institutional transplant
Reframe Institutional Transplant
  • Determinants of successful transplant

- Competitiveness of transplanted institution

- Compatibility with indigenous culture

- Origin of transplanted institution

- Process of the transplant

- lock-in effect cause of institutional stagnation

  • Implications

- Efficacious institutions will take over (not necessary)

  • Missing:

- Indigenous Demand for the transplanted institution

- Role complementary institutions play

effects of legal transplant
Effects of Legal Transplant
  • “The Effects of Legal Reform on Muslims’ Commercial and Financial Performance in Egypt, 1883-1949,” Islamic Law and Society, forthcoming
  • Conclusion: legal change necessary, not sufficient

- Complementary changes needed

- Socio-economic and political context

islamic schools in arab and islamic world
Islamic Schools in Arab and Islamic World
  • Recommendations: invest in modern schools in the area
  • Overlooked is internal demand and he complementary institutions that support it
  • Example: Islamic schools in Lebanon/Egypt
slide33

Old

education

New

education

do

dn

Do

Dn

Old job

market

New job

market

Do: Old Job market skills demand

Dn: New job market skills demand

do: individual’s demand for old education

dn: individual’s demand for new education

slide34

Locality

Schools

Students population

Beirut

101

12 452

Mount Lebanon

190

5 850

Tripoli

15

1 152

Sayda

15

887

Sur

10

520

Baalbek

5

433

Schools and Students in various parts of Lebanon in 1882

Source: Henry Diab and Lars Waehlin, “The Geography of Education in Syria in 1882, with a Translation of ‘Education in Syria’ by Shahin Makarius, 1883” Geografiska Annaler 65 B, 2 (1983): 126.

christians and muslims reactions
Christians

external trade

New financial services

Administration: top ranks

Teachers: indigenous Christian and missionary schools

Liberal professions

Need for new education

Muslims

internal trade

Old financial services

Administration: all ranks

Teachers: Public and Religious Schools

Old education suffices

Christians’ and Muslims’ Reactions
education providers
Education Providers
  • Old Religious Schools: Madrasas, Kuttabs, Dayrs
  • New Indigenous Schools (by sects)
  • Missionary Schools
  • Public Schools
  • Private Tutors
islamic schools
Islamic Schools

Madrasa: Higher education

  • Origin:Formal 11th century due to: expansion of Islamic state (need to systematize Islamic law). Number of students increased ---> Khans. To ensure full time students ---> waqfs to provide for their living and accommodation
  • Form and shape affected by:

- Traditionalist-rationalist/ Shiite-Sunni struggle

- Job market needs: expanding administration + judicial needs ---> Law and its sciences

- 19th century: private, waqf supported, small, founder-teacher

elementary schools
Elementary Schools
  • Muslims: Kuttabs: Elementary education

- mainly informal

- Expansion due to job market demand

- Waqf-founded kuttabs for poor and orphans

- 19th-20th century kuttabs

  • Christians: Dayrs

- informal, basic education

- more formal at higher education, after church’s reform

education providers1
Education Providers
  • Religious schools:

- Madrasas:

  • ajhflahf
thesis
Thesis
  • While supply of new schools was necessary for educational modernization, it was not sufficient. A matching demand had to coexist for educational modernization to take place.

The relative efficiency of the new schools was not enough to create internal demand. A network of institutions shaped Muslims’ demand for old education and kept it from changing.

job market structure and changes
Pre-19th century

Administration: judges, scribers, bookkeepers, accountants

Education: religious

Judiciary: religious codes

Trade: internal

Educational needs: basic and religious

Since 19th century

Enlarged administration

Education: foreign, missionary, public

Judiciary: new ‘secular’ courts

Trade: external trade expanding

Educational needs: basic, higher, ‘secular’

Job Market: Structure and Changes
christians and muslims responses
Christians

External trade

New financial services

Administration: top ranks

Teachers: indigenous Christian and missionary schools

Liberal professions

Need for new education

Muslims

Internal trade

Old financial services

Administration: all ranks

Teachers: Public and Religious Schools

Old education suffices

Christians’ and Muslims’ Responses
slide48

Number of students in Maronite schools by year

School

Year

Number of students

‘Ain Waraqa

1736

8

‘Ain Waraqa

1858

100

Mar Maroun

~1810

10

Rayfoun

~1810

10

Each of top 4 schools

1844

25

All top 5 schools

1884

177

Source: Iliya Harik, Politics and Change in a Traditional Society Lebanon, 1711-1845. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968. P. 164-165; Salamah, Bashir. Al-Ta’adud al-Madrasi wa Takawwun al-Mujtama’ al-Ta’ifi” ??

slide49

Graduates from two Maronite schools

School

Years

Number of

Graduates

Number of

Years

Graduates per

year

‘Ain Waraqa

1789-1818

50

29

1.7

Kfayfan

1808-1874

260

66

3.9

Source: Iliya Harik, Politics and Change in a Traditional Society Lebanon, 1711-1845. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968. P. 164-165

the nature of the educational divide
The Nature of the Educational Divide
  • Revisiting the existing data: Inconclusive

More Christians attended ‘modern’ schools than Muslims did. Qualitative not necessarily quantitative difference

  • Old typology: traditional vs. modern schools (criteria: religion)

- Missionary schools: ‘genesis’ of modern education, yet religious

- Private ‘modern’ schools: Religion and modern sciences

  • New typology: old vs. new (new skills, mainly foreign languages)
limited change and adaptability
Limited change and adaptability
  • Evidence: opportunities not fully pursued (flexibility and innovations limited and dispersed)
  • The process of change not built into the system, exceptionally practiced by judges and teachers to overcome inefficiencies
  • Question: why small change did not accumulate into large-scale transformations?
  • Approach: Analyze the system’s organization/structure and examine agents’ motives/incentives to change. Agents of change: qadis (judges), muftis (jurisconsults) and teachers
effects of waqf
Effects of Waqf
  • Centrality of Waqf for social services: (mosques, zawiyas, madrasas)
  • Static Perpetuity: Inflexibility & Stagnation

- Founder’s stipulation power of law

- Inflexibility & Stagnation

  • Consequences

1. procedural stagnation ruined madrasas

2. Contextual stagnation (curriculum)

  • Potential Flexibility:

- Procedural: Two legal devices to overcome inalienability: istibdal (exchange of property) & long-term leases (cases in Beirut and Sidon court records)

- Potential Contextual flexibility

two factors limited scale of change within waqf
Two Factors Limited Scale of Change within waqf
  • individualistic structure of Islamic institutions

- limited impact and transmission

- Potential for dismissing innovation

  • criteria of legitimacy being linked to the past

- Importance of chain of knowledge

- Reputation based on mastery of classical religious works, conformity to traditions

- Fitting changes into religious doctrine, rather than changing the doctrine

founding schools in late 19 th century
Founding Schools in late 19th Century
  • Large-scale waqf founder’s motives altered (centralization policies)

(1) wealth shelter motive altered  consequence (madrasas left with old waqfs)

- Beirut, 12 mosques and zawiyas supported by pre-19th century waqfs.

- Madrasas at the al-Mansouri mosque in Tripoli dated back to the 17th century.

(2) Political patronage decreased

  • Alternative approach: resource pooling/small waqfs
  • Maqased (1878) vs. Zahrat al-Ih}sa>n (1882)
institutional roots for difference
Muslims

Lack of collective legal entity: waqfs small and atomistic

- Madrasas at the Grand Mosque in Beirut (1843) supported by 203 waqfs, Fractions of apartments and revenues from small shops.

- Maqa>s}id Schools (1878) small waqfs, revenue 100 qurush, fractions of apartments

Lack of central manager

- Mosque (dependant)

- lack collective flexibility

Judicial limitations for innovative fund raising

Christians

Judicial Autonomy: different waqf law: larger and collective waqfs

- ‘Ain Waraqa school (1789) family-founded waqf

- Zahrat al-Ihsan (1882) co-founders of waqf

Central manager for community’s waqfs

- Church (corporate body)

- ‘Ain Waraqa (1789)

- al-H}ikmih (1874)

Innovative tools of funding (life insurances)

Institutional Roots for difference
institutional roots for limited provision of modern education
Institutional Roots for Limited Provision of Modern Education
  • Waqf Increased the cost of change, without blocking it
  • Individualistic organization of Islamic Institutions  confined frequency & scale of change
  • Structure of legitimacy within Islamic Institutions  Holding reform to what existed
  • Lack of Collective Legal entity  blocked resource pooling
  • Central Management  Lack of flexibility
comprehensive two sided explanation for an educational discrepancy puzzle
Comprehensive two-sided explanation for an Educational discrepancy puzzle
  • At the demand side, a set of institutions rewarded Islamic education, kept it in demand (Journal of Islamic Studies 20, 3 (2009): 317-351)
  • At the supply side, Islamic institutions hindered Muslims’ ability for resource pooling, and institutional reform (Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, under submission)
christians and muslims responses1
Christians

External trade

New financial services

Administration: top ranks

Teachers: indigenous Christian and missionary schools

Liberal professions

Need for new education

Muslims

Internal trade

Old financial services

Administration: all ranks

Teachers: Public and Religious Schools

Old education suffices

Christians’ and Muslims’ Responses
factors affecting muslims choices
Factors Affecting Muslims’ Choices
  • Islamic Legal Institutions:

1. Muslims’ limited external trade

  • State’s Reform policies:

2. Military conscription

3. Administration

4. Coexistence of Parallel Institutions

why study educational institutions reform in the arab world
Why Study Educational Institutions & Reform in the Arab World?
  • Central for economic & human development
  • Political indoctrination
  • Suggested scenarios for educational reform in the Islamic/Arab world:

- increase funds to found new modern schools

Assumption

- transplant ‘American’ college institution

Question: Would these work?